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symmetric through-thickness laminates

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in either through-transmission or reflectance mode Airport body scanners, space shuttle foam inspection, in situ nondestructive evaluation of concrete rebar, moisture detection in composites, paint thickness Cannot penetrate conductive metals High-quality imaging can be performed at distance. No ionizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the rotating rollers rest on plain bearings, which in turn rest on cast steel headstocks rigidly grouted on pedestals. This system ( Fig. 20 ) allows the top roll to float within 5 to 20 mm (0.2 to 0.8 in.), depending on the thickness of the cane blanket passing through the rolls. Premature failure of the top...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... through 2.6-mm (0.102-in.) diam steel wire. Light-etching surface layer (top) is untempered martensite; adjacent dark-etching zone is self-tempered martensite. The matrix was composed of deformed pearlite. Etched with 5% nital. 265× Example 3: Fatigue Fracture of Individual Steel Wires in a Hoisting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The crack then propagated in a brittle manner upward through the side plate, through the welds attaching the side plate to the 25 mm (1 in.) thick shell plate, and continued for several millimeters in the shell plate before terminating. The fracture surfaces displayed chevron marks pointing back to the weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... thickness. (b) Oblique view of the relatively rough fracture surface of the centrifugal pump shaft. (c) All regions of the fracture surface exhibited intergranular fracture features and secondary cracking. Scanning electron microscopy. Original magnification: 98×. (d) Metallographic cross section through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... about halfway through the bolt-head diameter (arrows, Fig. 2c ). The bolt was sectioned to expose a portion of the crack surface, which was found to be heavily oxidized ( Fig. 2d ). Figure 2(e) shows a micrograph of a cross section transverse to the crack that illustrates the thickness and uniformity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Microscopic Examination (50 to 2000×.) Metallographic sections taken through fractures are used to classify fracture paths (transgranular or intergranular), to establish the mode of fracture (shear or cleavage), and to locate and identify crack-initiation sites. Plating before mounting can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... (d) Section through bolt showing heavy oxidation on crack surface (between arrows). (e) Section through crack showing thickness and uniformity of oxide coating. Etched with 2% nital. Original magnification: 1000× Fig. 14 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 alloy steel fasteners that failed by hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Properties , Through Thickness Tension Testing of Steel , STP 794, Gladowski R.J. , Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials , 1983 , p 130 10.1520/STP10011S 37. Bates R.C. and Clark W.G. Jr. , Trans. Q. ASM , Vol 62 , 1969 , p 380 38. Whiteson B.V...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at that location because no normal stress acts at the centerline. (There is a shear stress at this location in bending, but in a homogeneous material, it is too small to initiate fracture. That might not be the case for a laminated structure loaded in bending.) Alternatively, brittle torsion failure is readily...