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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A housing used in conjunction with an electrical switch failed shortly after being placed into service. A relatively high failure rate had been encountered, corresponding to a recent production lot of the housings, and the failed part was representative of the problem. The housing had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The conical helical spring sealed, within each switch enclosure, fractured to lead to the failure of several electrical toggle switches. The spring was fabricated from 0.43 mm diam AISI type 302 stainless steel wires. Appreciable amount of scale was observed on the fracture surface...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 Stainless steel toggle-switch spring that fractured by fatigue originating at a tool mark. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches) of the spring. (b) Fracture surface, 85×; fracture origin (arrow) is at lower edge of tool mark. (c) SEM fractograph of fracture origin, 1000 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stainless steel toggle-switch spring that fractured by fatigue originating at a tool mark. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given in inches) of the spring. (b) Fracture surface, 85×; fracture origin (arrow) is at lower edge of tool mark. (c) SEM fractograph of fracture origin, 1000 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The pawl spring which was part of a selector switch used in telephone equipment failed. The springs were blanked from 0.4 mm (0.014 in.) thick tempered 1095 steel and then nickel plated. Numerous pits around the rivet holes were revealed by microscopic examination of longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... lubrication. The machine manufacturer therefore switched to bearings with shells of a complex bronze. Bearing steel Cracking (fracturing) Food packaging Needle bearings Ball bearing steel Corrosion fatigue Pitting corrosion A needle bearing from a filling- and seating machine for milk cartons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A plant had manufactured and heat treated their product in house for years. As time went on, the special steel that they had been using became more expensive, and a switch was made to a more common and less highly alloyed material. However, no change in hardness specifications were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Fusing of the switch contacts of a boiler feed pump drive motor led to the failure of a turbine. After rubbing of most of the Ni-Cr steel LP wheels had occurred, due to the admission of water carried over with the steam, a copper-rich alloy from the interstage gland rings melted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... product was cupric hydroxychloride. In addition to switching to a more corrosion-resistant alloy, extreme care should be taken in the manufacturing of the replacement tube bundles to avoid imparting any residual tensile stresses in the tubing. Analyses of city and spring-pit water were recommended also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... = 2 π × 160 / 60 rad / s    = 16.75 rad / s . Final angular velocity ω F = 0. The chuck running at a speed of 160 rpm is brought to rest within 2 s by switching “ON” the reverse push button to stop the lathe quickly. This leads to sudden angular deceleration...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Overall view (a) of external tank pressure/vent valve. (b) Partially disassembled valve. A, solenoid switch; B, dual-position valve; C, valve housing. (c) Segment of air line showing residue on check valve poppet (arrow). (d) Close-up view of check valve poppet More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
between the body and finger increased the stress concentration. A switch to an air-hardening steel or differential hardening could have eliminated the difficulty. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... air at 448 kPa (65 psig) shifts the dual-position valve (part B, Fig. 1b ). Fig. 1 Overall view (a) of external tank pressure/vent valve. (b) Partially disassembled valve. A, solenoid switch; B, dual-position valve; C, valve housing. (c) Segment of air line showing residue on check valve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0046505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...). During a fire emergency, heat detectors activated a switch, releasing a weight that pivoted the lip of the latch away from the clapper. Water pressure forced the clapper plate upward. allowing water to flow through the system. Investigation Visual examination of the latch and clapper plate showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... There are several possible alternate materials that could be used to replace the 304 stainless steel hanger rods. One possibility is a nickel-iron-chromium alloy such as Inconel 625 or Incoloy 825. High-nickel alloys such as these have a good resistance to general corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking. Switching...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... switch used in telephone equipment. Three of these springs that broke and strip specimens of the raw material used to fabricate similar springs were examined to determine the cause of failure. The springs had been blanked from 0.4-mm (0.014-in.) thick tempered 1095 steel, then nickel plated. Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... UNS S45500 Fatigue fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Mechanical springs go into a variety of aerospace systems where both efficiency and reliability are required. Typical applications range from the control of switching characteristics of miniature switches to the deployment of missile fairing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... First of all, defining a task to simply categorize observations generally restricts thinking and minimizes the input from those involved in the categorization. This type of black and white thinking has a place: “A light switch is either on or off.” “A golf ball either ends up in the hole or it doesn't...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the fractured wire face inside the ferrule Seven days after the more expensive type 304 wires were installed, the first failed. Thus, switching from inexpensive 1008 carbon steel wire to a much more expensive type 304 austenitic stainless steel wire changed the time to first failure from one year to one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... The gasket is a fire proof refinery gasket and requires a large clamping force to ensure proper compression and sealing. It was noted that in 1988 the valve manufacturer switched the material for the bonnet screws from SAE grade 8 to ASTM A574. This change in the type of bolt used reflects an increase...