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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The maximum life of base-loaded headers and piping is not possible to be predicted until they develop microcracking. The typical elements of a periodic inspection program after the occurrence of the crack was described extensively. Cracks caused by creep swelling in the stub...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The microstructure near the rupture edge was revealed by metallographic examination to consist of ferrite and acicular martensite or bainite. The microstructure and the observed lack of cold work indicated a temperature above the transformation temperature of 727 deg C had been reached. Swelling of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract The tubes of a stationary industrial boiler, 64 mm in diam and made of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel (ASME SA-213, grade T-11) failed by two different types of rupture. Noticeable swelling of the tubes in the area of rupture was revealed by visual examination. The tubes with slight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A carbon steel furnace tube which should have given good service for ten years ruptured after one year. The tube showed obvious swelling at the point of rupture, and the bulged surface of the tube was oxidized at a temperature far above the design temperature. There was little...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0048303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract A tube in a radiant superheater, the boiler of which is coal fired, failed by creep after 17 years of service. The failed tube was specified to be made of ASME SA-213, grade T-22. Measurable swelling of the tube diameter by about 2.4 mm and tube wastage caused by corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Metal-framed polycarbonate (PC) ophthalmic lenses shattered from acetone solvent-induced cracking. The lenses exhibited primary and secondary cracks with solvent swelling and crazing. A laboratory accident splashed acetone onto the lenses. The metal frames gripped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Venart J.E.S. , and Steward F.R. : “ Two-Phase Swelling and Entrainment during Pressure Relief Valve Discharges ,” J. Hazard. Mater. , 1990 , 25 , pp. 219 – 236 10.1016/0304-3894(90)85080-M . 7. Pietersen C.M. : “ Analysis of the LPG Disaster in Mexico City ,” J. Hazard. Mater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... central tubular region and the two end cup portions, which were reinforced by increased wall thickness. Plastic deformation of the HAZs of the two brazed joints in the form of swelling (increase in diameter) and wall thinning elevates hoop stress (as well as longitudinal stress), causing further swelling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The crack surfaces were observed visually and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Visual Observation SEM Observation Microstructure Examination Hardness Examination According to the assembly recorder, oil pressure of swelling bore was 130 MPa when press-fitting gear and gear-shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... The airfoils of the uncoated blades exhibited splitting along the leading edges and swelling on the surfaces, indicating severe hot corrosion ( Fig. 1a ). Metallographic examination of an uncoated blade confirmed hot-corrosion damage by revealing the characteristic sulfidation-oxidation attack of the base...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-conductor (alpha) tin. The alpha form of tin has a larger crystal structure than the metallic, beta form of tin. Therefore, during the transformation to alpha tin, there is a volume increase in the material. Typically, tin will swell by around 26% [ 1 ]. The transformation from a metallic (beta...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... as 7.44 cm (2.93 in.). Considering that most, if not all, of the tube swelling occurred on the fireside of the tubes, these differences in measurement represent an approximate 30% growth in the radius. Tube wall thickness measurements taken along the coldside averaged 0.356 em (0.140 in.), consistent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... exhibit different fracture characteristics from typical resin material. Brittle resins typically exhibit relatively flat fractures with evidence of river patterns; the anomalous areas however were globular in appearance and exhibited resin swelling ( Figure 6 ). No fracture features, such as river...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the ruptures were similar. Figure 1(b) illustrates one of these narrow fissure-type failures. Dimensional measurements showed no swelling except at the failure. Wall thickness away from the rupture was 3.8 to 3.9 mm (0.148 to 0.154 in.), depending on precise location and on the tube—well above the specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that demonstrated the replication technique to provide microstructures representative of bulk material. A chemical analysis of the piping showed compliance with the material specification. Significantly, the pipe showed no evidence of swelling due to creep. This fact, coupled with the lack of damage downstream...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the usual evidence of rubber degradation: crazing, swelling, embrittlement, or softening. Caraful review of the installation history of the pumps provided no indication that the impellers had been improperly installed or “spaced out” within the pumps. The proximate cause of failure was cavition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by thick-edged fracture lips, little ductility or tube swelling, excessive internal scale, and other evidence of oxidation or corrosion. The fracture is normal to the tube surface and parallel with the tube axis ( Fig. 6a ). The microstructure ( Fig. 6b and c ) exhibits evidence of creep damage, creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... duration. However, the tube showed no evidence of swelling due to creep. This fact, coupled with the lack of damage of the inner-wall surface, would eliminate doubt on classical creep as the cause of failure. On the other hand, the existence of patches of fatigue striations and random crack patterns...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-brand bungee cords revealed a significant amount of mineral oil. It appeared that the presence of this incompatible oil introduced during processing caused swelling of the rubber, which increased the volume and tightened up against the inner sheath. The rubber showed numerous cracks/breaks due...