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surface-initiated spalling

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... revealed the presence of a characteristic fatigue crack propagation pattern (beach marks) and radial chevron marks indicating the occurrence of final overload through a brittle intergranular fracture. The collected evidence suggests that surface-initiated cracks propagated by fatigue led to spalling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A type 410 stainless steel circulating water pump shaft used in a fossil power steam generation plant failed after more than 7 years of service. Visual examination showed the fracture surface to be coated with a thick, spalling, rust-colored scale, along with evidence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microscope (SEM) observations enabled the delamination failures to be classified by the location of crack initiation and subsequent propagation. For radial- and lateral-cracked balls, failure occurred in three ways: lateral-crack-induced spalling, radial-crack-induced surface bulging, and radial-crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A portion of two large spur tooth bull gears made from 4147H Cr-Mo alloy steel that had spalling teeth was submitted for evaluation. The gears were taken from a final drive wheel reduction unit of a very large open-pit mining truck. The parts had met the material and initial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Work rolls made of indefinite chill double-poured (ICDP) iron are commonly used in the finishing trains of hot-strip mills (HSMs). In actual service, spalling, apart from other surface degeneration modes, constitutes a major mechanism of premature roll failures. Although...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of material from the surface of a bearing race depends on the lubricant viscosity and/or film thickness. Various theories have been proposed that attribute the spalling to hydrostatic pressure of the lubricant being forced into surface cracks to propagate them. Another theory states that the propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A freely rotating bore requires a good lubrication film, or seizing and galling may result. The bore used as a bearing outer race must be as hard as any standard bearing surface and is subject to all conditions of rolling contact, such as fatigue, pitting, spalling, and galling. The bore that is press fit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... confirmed and further resolved the visual findings of spalling and smearing. Surface scans via an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) provided the most important evidence, revealing traces of Titanium-based transferred material immediately adjacent to the initiation of a spall. Titanium is an element...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract An AISI 4320 H transfer gear shaft that was part of a transmission sustained severe surface damage after 12 h of dynamometer testing at various gearing and torque loads. The damage was characterized by generalized wear and spalling. Examination of a cross section of the shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., this cavity may have formed by the initial ejection of the spall and subsequent plastic deformation of the striking surface contiguous to the edge of the cavity. Speculation regarding such details of spalling could be limited considerably if cavities could be sectioned for metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... As with conventional steel bearings, spalls in TS coatings can initiate from micropits, furrows, grinding marks, or dents on the surface of a wear track. Also, subsurface inclusions and defects are known to lead to spalling of rolling elements. Examination of the wear track of a spalled specimen in TS coatings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., the individual corrosion pits acted as stress raisers and initiated coarse grain spalling. Due to a bending moment on the rotating element, this in turn initiated bending fatigue normal to the longitudinal axis, which propagated through to the bore of the inner ring. Stain marks were visible in the bore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... There was no evidence of tooth bending fatigue on either part. Several cracks were associated with the spalling surfaces on the concave sides of the 4820H NiMo alloy steel pinion teeth. The gear teeth showed no indication of fatigue. The primary mode of failure was rolling contact fatigue of the concave (drive) active...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... is an irregular loss of metal from a tread surface of about 1 to 3 mm. The fatigue crack may be initiated by heavy deformed pearlite fragment, brittle inclusion located in the maximum reversed contact stress region or by the breakage of martensite caused by braking. 9 , 10 Spalling also stems from rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... an initially flat surface and removes the effects of sectioning within a few minutes. An abrasive grit size of 180 or 240 in the American National Standards Institute/Coated Abrasive Manufacturers’ Institute (ANSI/CAMI) grading system (P180 or P280 in the FEPA, or Fédération Européenne des Fabricants de...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., or 0.005 in., below the surface), which indicated that it had initiated the spalling cavity. Failure of the cage resulted from overheating and excessive stressing of the cage caused by misalignment of the bearing on the main shaft. The bearing that failed was slightly tempered by overheating during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... is a consequence of intergranular cracking, whose initiation and propagation presumably has been aided by imposed stresses during rolling. Fig. 3 SEM fractograph of spalled surface showing brittle intergranular cracking. 1000× Optical microscopic observations of polished and unetched specimens at 500...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... concentration in the concrete. Since the shear stirrups were closer to the surface than any of the rebar, they were also in an environment that would initiate corrosion. The chloride distribution profiles were modeled using Fick's law of diffusion to determine effective chloride diffusivities ( D cl...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... method for the cladding was unknown. Visual and metallographic analyses indicated that the failure was from transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (TGSCC), which caused extensive cracking and spalling of the cladding and was localized in a segment of the bottom cone. The remainder of the digester...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... ( Fig. 1b ). The surfaces of these fractures exhibited fatigue marks extending across almost the entire tooth ( Fig. 1c ). Magnetic-particle inspection of the pinion showed that all of the teeth were cracked. Each crack had initiated along the tooth root, at the toe (small) end of the tooth, extending...