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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... to a surface prepared even in this manner would always be satisfactory under severe loading conditions, such as those to which a crankpin is subjected in service. Reference Reference 1. Styles J.B. , Trans. Inst. Mar. Eng. , v.LX. No. 12 , 1948 . Selected References Selected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of all polished in an automatic holder on a special cloth prepared with 1 µm diamond paste until all visible grinding marks had been removed. This was followed by hand polishing with alumina no. 1 on a felt cloth and then with alumina no. 3 on velvet. The surface deformation was removed between whiles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... ground and etched with ammonium persulfate solution revealing that complete penetration had not been achieved at the weld root. The band observed in the fracture was apparently part of the unfused weld-preparation surface at the root of the weld. This failure was caused by fatigue that initiated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are the different types of samples that can be analyzed and the special sample-handling procedures that must be implemented when preparing to do failure analysis using these surface-sensitive techniques. Data obtained from different material defects are presented for each of the techniques. The examples presented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... marks that indicated crack propagation from multiple origins at the inner surface of the weld edge. Fatigue cracking was initiated at stress concentrations created by the notches at the inner surfaces between the support arm and the fairing, enhanced by poor fit-up in preparation for welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The microstructure of the failed pipe was found to consist of a matrix precipitate array (M23C6) and large s-phase particles in the grain boundaries. A portable grinding tool was used to prepare the surface and followed by swab etching. All material upstream of the boiler stop valve was revealed to have oriented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) replicas were then taken of the keyway to record the surface topography and its relation to the crack. The keyway surfaces were then prepared using field metallographic techniques. In this case, a small rotary grinder-polisher (Diprofiler) which was originally developed for the die-making trade...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... column, signal detection and display equipment, and vacuum system. It discusses the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM and describes the application of SEM in fractography. If the surface remains unaffected and undamaged by events subsequent to the actual failure, it is often a simple...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Countersunk riveted joints in aluminum sheet are widely employed in the aircraft industry. The preparation of the sheet for the riveting process consists either of countersinking where the sheet is sufficiently thick or of dimpling. Metallographic assessment of dimple defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... a hydraulic test on one of the boilers in a range, leakage occurred from the lower surface of a horizontal S bend in the main steam pipe between the drum connector box and the junction valve. The pipe in question was 15 in. bore and had been in service for about 50 years. Specimens were prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The interior surface of a type 316L stainless steel trailer barrel used to haul various chemicals showed evidence of severe pitting after less than 1 year of service. Two sections were cut from the barrel and microscopically examined. Metallographic sections were also prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. The SEM provides the user with an unparalleled ability to observe and quantify the surface of a sample. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and inspection. The crack indications were found only on one side of the boss and on the lower portion of the hot-spun dome region. The metallographic specimens revealed triangular voids and severe intergranular cracks. The cracks displayed the glossy surfaces typical of melted and resolidified material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract AISI type 321 stainless steel heat exchanger tubes failed after only three months of service. Macroscopic examination revealed that the leaks were the result of localized pitting attack originating at the water side surfaces of the tubes. Metallographic sections were prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... temperature cycles calculated to be from 400 to 30 deg C (752 to 86 deg F). The window was activated to >200 Sv/h. It was determined through analysis using remote handling techniques and hot cells that the crack initiated near a spot weld used to affix thermocouples to the window surface. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fracture are listed below: To determine how these elements were combined in these small particles, plastic replicas were applied and pulled from the fracture surface, removing many of the particles. These replicas were prepared by standard TEM techniques and were analyzed with selected-area electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... an apparently sound link, the prepared surfaces lying in the planes of the links. This examination revealed that the welds were initially defective. Discontinuities were present in both cases adjacent to the insides of the links, of a type indicative of either inadequate fusion or incomplete expulsion of oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the surface preparation and machining of titanium alloys, which produced a superior surface finish. All of the grinding and polishing performed on the weldment was done with the Di-Profiler using various PSA-backed grinding papers and polishing cloths. The procedures followed for the surface preparation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... blemishes at the same locations as the underlying pores. In addition, a theoretical foundation can be used to demonstrate how the pores can cause blemishes on the plated surfaces. The plating process requires that the castings be immersed in several liquid baths for cleaning and surface preparation, as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the panels was endorsed. Most importantly, surveillance of the anodizing process itself was emphasized. Alkaline cleaning Anodizing Auger electron spectroscopy Energy dispersive x ray analysis Fuel tanks Panels Scanning electron microscopy Sealing Surface preparation Vapor degreasing Wings...