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surface power density

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... (a) Droplet attack. (b, c) Shock wave formation. (d) Reflection wave formation. (e) Focusing and cavitation bubble formation. Source: Ref 8 Theoretical studies on single-droplet impingement show that the impact pressure, p , on the solid surface is given by p = ρ cV , where ρ is the density...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., and was much easier because the Fourier transform is extremely sensitive to repeat feature detection. Fig. 5 Fourier transform power spectrum of fatigue striations: (a) scanning electron fractograph of fatigue striations on failed spar fracture surface (11,475× approx.) and (b) resulting Fourier...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... gases with entrained solid particles that impinge on the containment vessel surface. Several studies have been conducted to describe the wear-corrosion synergism that takes place during the oxide formation and subsequent removal by abrasive particles ( Ref 10 , 11 , 12 ). Power-Generation Plants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-induced failures usually occur. The fracture was limited to the return bend and terminated at the welds that joined the bend to the pipeline. Investigation Examination of the fracture surfaces with a low-power stereomicroscope revealed that very little thinning of the metal had taken place...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... UNS S30400 Heat treating-related failures Intergranular fracture During a routine maintenance procedure at a power station, dye-penetrant examination revealed linear indications on the outer surface of a cross in a piping system. The cross was specified as SA403 type WP 304 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the subsurface flaw. 11.56×. (c) Fracture surface of the subsurface flaw near the ridges. Note the high density of pits and craters. 10.08×. (d) Higher-magnification view of fracture surface near ridge. 100.8×. (e) Higher-magnification view of fracture surface and craters. 504× Figure 5 shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... overboring of the rotor to remove indications close to the surface and revision of starting procedures, were implemented to extend the remaining life of the rotor and ensure its fitness for continued service. Cleavage Electric power generation Forgings Nonmetallic inclusions Cr-Mo-V Metalworking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... In addition, the microcrater density (microcraters per area) was slightly greater on the rollers surface than on the outer ring raceway. Fig. 6 Craters diameters on the rollers: histogram ( a ), classification ( b ). The average diameter of the craters measured 2.9 μm Fig. 7 Craters diameters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... separated transversely through one of the two sets of elongated holes. The hole bore surface was irregular and discolored. Testing Procedure and Results Surface Examination Macrofractography Examination of the failed elongated hole under a low-power stereoscopic microscope revealed a rough...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract This paper presents a failure analysis of a reverse shaft in the transmission system of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). The reverse shaft with splines fractured into two pieces during operation. Visual examination of the fractured surface clearly showed cracks initiated from the roots...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) and involves machining of some sort during the build for the purpose of creating a precision surface finish and tight tolerances, compared with AM only. Lasers are usually CO 2 , Nd:YAG, fiber, disk, or diode. Laser power varies between 400 and 4000 W, with spot sizes ranging widely between approximately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and re-heater tubes) in thermal power plants. Although these high-temperature components have a design life of 20 years and some have been in service for much longer, tube ruptures occasionally occur in power plants; most of these accidents are tube blowouts in the tubing system. These accidents cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled and a non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrode the metal. Surface films may prevent detection of discontinuities. Penetrant may be a source of contamination that masks results in subsequent chemical analysis of fracture surfaces. The process is generally not suited to inspection of low-density powder metallurgy parts or other porous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The sources of residual stress included welding, environment, and assembly operation. Chemistry Dimensional tolerance Embrittlement Heat-affected zone Residual stress Tensile strength Weld ASTM A588 Fatigue fracture Joining-related failures Background A Midwest power authority reported...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Common name Glass transition temperature ( T g ) Melting temperature ( T m ) Tensile strength °C °F °C °F MPa ksi Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) –123 –189 –85 to –65 –121 to –85 … … Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) –120 –184 110 230 10–12 1.5–1.7 High-density polyethylene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with accuracy. Deviations (from flat) of as little as three to four wavelengths of light may be observed by the practiced eye. A lens should have a proper focal length, surface regularity, and the proper curvature. The focal length of a positively powered lens may be checked by using a distant light source...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) E = K 2 V p R a ρ b K c c H d f ( α ) where V is the velocity, R is the particle radius, ρ is the particle density, K c is the surface material fracture toughness, H is the surface material hardness, and p , a , b , c , d , and K 2 are constants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is particularly useful for quantitative characterization of specific features (for example, dimples, striations, pores, facets, inclusions, etc.) present in the fracture surface ( Ref 35 , 36 ). The features of interest are characterized via estimation of their number density, average size, shape, spacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A high-speed pinion gear shaft, part of a system that compresses natural gas, was analyzed to determine why it failed. An abnormal wear pattern was observed on the shaft surface beneath the inner race of the support bearings. Material from the shaft had transferred to the bearing races...