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surface induction hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... in comparatively short journal pins at high stresses. This crankshaft fracture was an example of the damage that is caused or promoted neither by material nor heat treatment mistakes nor by defects of design or machining, but solely by overstressing. Crankshafts Induction hardening Torsional fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... bull gears that had spalling teeth was submitted for evaluation ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Spur gear tooth, SAE 4147H, quenched and tempered to 311 HB, machined completely, induction hardened with a tooth space inductor by traversing one tooth space at a time. (a) Surface spalling along one tooth flank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was missing from each of several shafts before the motors were put into service. The shafts were made of 1151 steel, and the surfaces of the splines were induction hardened to 58 to 62 HRC. Several shafts were sent to the laboratory for examination to determine the cause of failure. Fig. 1 Induction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the surface. Indifferent results were obtained in induction hardening; cracks were noticed, and patchy hardness figures were obtained on the final product in several batches. Metallographic examination of transverse sections through the defective areas showed decarburization to varying degrees, i.e., from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The 8620 steel latch tip, carburized and then induction hardened to a minimum surface hardness of 62 HRC, on the main-clutch stop arm on a business machine fractured during normal operation when the latch tip was subjected to intermittent impact loading. Fractographic examination 9x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... supplier machined the journals, induction hardened and tempered the journal surfaces, finish machined, and balanced the crankshaft. The end product was to have a core hardness of 241–285 BHN and a surface hardness of 47–52 HRC to 2–5 mm depth. External Examination When samples of the failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Induction-hardened teeth on a sprocket cast of low-alloy steel wore at an unacceptably high rate. A surface hardness of 50 to 51 HRC was determined; 55 HRC minimum had been specified. Analysis revealed that the alloy content of the steel was adequate for the desired hardenability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of 40 to 46 HRC. Visual inspection and 100x micrographs showed the fracture surface as having a complex type of fatigue failure initiated from subsurface inclusions in the transition zone between the induction-hardened surface and the softer core. The fractured shaft was examined for chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... at the edge of the induction hardened zone. Decarburization would not have been removed in this location. Induction hardening response may also be a problem at this location. These soft numbers explain the presence of ferrite in Figs. 17 and 18 . Axle 3 had a hardness of HRC 61.5 at the origin surface...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Induction-hardened 1151 steel rotor shaft in which a spline fractured because of a seam. Top left: Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). Section A-A: Micrographs of section through broken spline, showing shape of fracture (arrow A), root of seam (arrow B), and decarburized More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Spur gear tooth, SAE 4147H, quenched and tempered to 311 HB, machined completely, induction hardened with a tooth space inductor by traversing one tooth space at a time. (a) Surface spalling along one tooth flank, (b) No hardened case on active profile of one side of the teeth. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... It was recommended that replacement sprockets be made of normalized 1045 steel. It was further suggested that wear resistance could be improved by through hardening or induction surface hardening of the teeth. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Bayer R.G. , Fundamentals of Wear Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to abnormally high temperatures, increasing the amount of friction between the sleeve, bearing bush, and journal surface. The excessive heat also softened the induction-hardened case on the journal surface, decreasing its fatigue strength. Fatigue crack initiation occurred at the root fillet of the groove...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Other nonuniform microstructure may exist and create problems for heat treatment. When very short heat treating times are used for surface-applied energy treatments, such as for induction hardening, these problems become evident. If the carbon needed for hardening the material is mostly tied up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the more traditional cast irons in a similar state, so surface treatment is still required to minimize wear. Therefore, it is sensible to evaluate the use of a common surface treatment (e.g., induction hardening) to improve the wear resistance (e.g., impact wear) of the material, regardless of its use...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... features are suggested and a plating layer is apparent on the quench crack surface. 2% Nital Etchant (Original Magnification 100 ×) Case History #2 - Axle Bar Cracking Axle bars were manufactured from 38 mm square Grade 1045 plain carbon steel. The bars were induction hardened to 45 to 50 HRC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... between a number of constraints. For example, while flame- and induction-hardened gears are usually less expensive than other case-hardened gears, they usually do not have the surface hardness or case depth and cannot handle the same loads. Carburized gears can have thicker cases and withstand heavier...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., brine, and caustic quenching Shapes Maximum carbon content, % Furnace hardening General use 0.30 Simple shapes 0.35 Very simple shapes (e.g., bars) 0.40 Induction hardening Simple shapes 0.50 Complex shapes 0.33 Higher-carbon steels undergo greater expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... treated by quenching and tempering, but there was no evidence of case hardening on the spline surfaces, a treatment commonly given to shafts of this type. The worn surfaces of the splines showed evidence of cold work at the edges. Also, there was a relatively smooth worn area at the center of each...