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surface hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Surface-hardened steel Fatigue fracture A crankshaft which was overloaded on a test stand suffered an incipient crack in the crank pin ( Fig. 1 ). The crack run generally parallel to the longitudinal axis and branched off at the entrance into the two fillets at the transition to the crank arm ( Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A lever (machined from a casting made of AISI type 410 stainless steel, then surface hardened by nitriding) that was a component of the main fuel-control linkage of an aircraft engine fractured in flight after a service life of less than 50 h. Investigation (radiographic inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) analyses of failed shaft specimens were conducted. The examinations showed that the shafts had failed by fatigue. It was recommended that a low-alloy steel (e.g., 3% Ni-Cr) in the hardened and tempered condition and subjected to shot-peening surface-hardening treatment be used. The provision of a stop...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... It was recommended that replacement sprockets be made of normalized 1045 steel. It was further suggested that wear resistance could be improved by through hardening or induction surface hardening of the teeth. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Bayer R.G. , Fundamentals of Wear Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... bull gears that had spalling teeth was submitted for evaluation ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Spur gear tooth, SAE 4147H, quenched and tempered to 311 HB, machined completely, induction hardened with a tooth space inductor by traversing one tooth space at a time. (a) Surface spalling along one tooth flank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-hardened at the flat ends. While the core material with the full wall thickness had the quench structure of low carbon steel ( Fig. 2 ), the structure of the flattened area consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a small amount of pearlite (quench troostite) and ferrite ( Fig. 3 ). At the surface...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Countershaft pinion that fractured in fatigue at roots of teeth because of incomplete hardening at tooth surfaces. (a) Schematic illustration of the pinion, which was sand cast from a chromium-molybdenum steel. Dimensions given in inches. (b) Macrograph of a nital-etched section through More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Deformation, surface cracking, and spalling on the raceway of the outer ring (made of 4140 steel) of a large bearing caused it to be replaced from a radar antenna. The raceway surfaces were to be flame hardened to 55 HRC minimum and 50 HRC 3.2 mm below the surface, according...
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 8 Scanning electron micrograph of case-hardened fracture surface where local cleavage occurred. 2000×. More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 12 Fracture surface of subsized impact coupon prepared from the hardened perimeter of the axle, showing cleavage rupture with river patterns. 3400×. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Photomicrographs showing (a) white hardened layer near surface, (b) untempered martensitic structure, at 1000× More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 16 Cracking, deformation, and a white hardened layer at the journal surface of Crank #1 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Hardened structure associated with surface cracks. (×100). More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Carbon has a profound effect on both the martensite hardness and the steel hardenability. The mathematical estimation for steel surface hardness is based upon carbon content alone. The predominant additional elements of interest in hardenability calculations are manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in a lower ultimate tensile strength. The fatigue resistance of a material is directly proportional to its tensile strength. This explains the higher susceptibility of the shaft to fracture under cyclic loading. Normally, the surface of a shaft is hardened to delay crack initiation and thus improve fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The 8620 steel latch tip, carburized and then induction hardened to a minimum surface hardness of 62 HRC, on the main-clutch stop arm on a business machine fractured during normal operation when the latch tip was subjected to intermittent impact loading. Fractographic examination 9x...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 0.063 in. deep) completely or uniformly can encourage erratic surface hardening and cracking in treatment or in service because of excessive residual stress. Best practice calls for the purchasing of stock that the mill assures is free of decarburization. Look at Heat Treatment First Faulty...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and structure to achieve the required properties. For example, parts that will be subjected to cyclic tensile loads should have a through-hardened structure for optimum resistance to fatigue failure. On the other hand, if the loads will be torsional or bending, the stresses will be greatest at the surface...