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surface hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Torsional fatigue Surface-hardened steel Fatigue fracture A crankshaft which was overloaded on a test stand suffered an incipient crack in the crank pin ( Fig. 1 ). The crack run generally parallel to the longitudinal axis and branched off at the entrance into the two fillets at the transition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... alternative to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A lever (machined from a casting made of AISI type 410 stainless steel, then surface hardened by nitriding) that was a component of the main fuel-control linkage of an aircraft engine fractured in flight after a service life of less than 50 h. Investigation (radiographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surface-hardening treatment be used. The provision of a stop to reduce bending stresses was also recommended. Extruders Shafts (power) UNS G10220 1022 EN3 Fatigue fracture Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Discussion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... be improved by through hardening or induction surface hardening of the teeth. Catastrophic wear Chain drives Chemical processing industry Shafts (power) UNS G10200 UNS G10450 1020 1045 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear Background Testing Procedure and Results Discussion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Deformation, surface cracking, and spalling on the raceway of the outer ring (made of 4140 steel) of a large bearing caused it to be replaced from a radar antenna. The raceway surfaces were to be flame hardened to 55 HRC minimum and 50 HRC 3.2 mm below the surface, according...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... spur tooth bull gears that had spalling teeth was submitted for evaluation ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Spur gear tooth, SAE 4147H, quenched and tempered to 311 HB, machined completely, induction hardened with a tooth space inductor by traversing one tooth space at a time. (a) Surface spalling along one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-hardened at the flat ends. While the core material with the full wall thickness had the quench structure of low carbon steel ( Fig. 2 ), the structure of the flattened area consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a small amount of pearlite (quench troostite) and ferrite ( Fig. 3 ). At the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was missing from each of several shafts before the motors were put into service. The shafts were made of 1151 steel, and the surfaces of the splines were induction hardened to 58 to 62 HRC. Several shafts were sent to the laboratory for examination to determine the cause of failure. Fig. 1 Induction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and microstructural investigation supported the conclusion that the bushing fractured in fatigue because of a highly stressed case-hardened surface of unsatisfactory microstructure and subsurface nonmetallic inclusions. Cracks initiated at the highly stressed surface and propagated across the section as a result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract The 8620 steel latch tip, carburized and then induction hardened to a minimum surface hardness of 62 HRC, on the main-clutch stop arm on a business machine fractured during normal operation when the latch tip was subjected to intermittent impact loading. Fractographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... It was concluded that the combined effect of vibration and abrasive wear by sand and metal particles removed from the splines damaged the shaft. Case hardened spline teeth surface was recommended to increase resistance to wear and abrasion. Case hardening Wear resistance Case-hardened steel Abrasive wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A gear manufacturer experienced service problems with various gears and pinions that had worn prematurely or had fractured. All gears and pinions were forged from 1.60Mn-5Cr steel and were case hardened by pack carburizing. Gear Failure: One of the gears showed severe wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was set at 81 HRA. Carbon Case depth Case hardening Chemical composition Surface hardness AMS 6263 UNS K44414 Rolling-contact wear Two intermediate impeller drive gears were submitted for metallurgical examination when they exhibited evidence of pitting and abnormal wear after production...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Several teeth of a bevel pinion which was part of a drive unit in an edging mill failed after three months in service. Specifications required that the pinion be made from a 2317 steel forging and that the teeth be carburized and hardened to a case hardness of 56 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... This effect will be discussed separately in a later paper. The reverse is also true: the resistance can be increased by surface hardening. Since the critical zone in which the stress exceeds the strength, i. e. from where the fracture originates, usually lies just under the surface, the sensitivity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... carbon content results in a lower ultimate tensile strength. The fatigue resistance of a material is directly proportional to its tensile strength. This explains the higher susceptibility of the shaft to fracture under cyclic loading. Normally, the surface of a shaft is hardened to delay crack initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a profound effect on both the martensite hardness and the steel hardenability. The mathematical estimation for steel surface hardness is based upon carbon content alone. The predominant additional elements of interest in hardenability calculations are manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... hardening of the surface. Indifferent results were obtained in induction hardening; cracks were noticed, and patchy hardness figures were obtained on the final product in several batches. Metallographic examination of transverse sections through the defective areas showed decarburization to varying degrees...