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surface hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Surface-hardened steel Fatigue fracture A crankshaft which was overloaded on a test stand suffered an incipient crack in the crank pin ( Fig. 1 ). The crack run generally parallel to the longitudinal axis and branched off at the entrance into the two fillets at the transition to the crank arm ( Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and mechanical (hardness and tensile properties) analyses of failed shaft specimens were conducted. The examinations showed that the shafts had failed by fatigue. It was recommended that a low-alloy steel (e.g., 3% Ni-Cr) in the hardened and tempered condition and subjected to shot-peening surface-hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A lever (machined from a casting made of AISI type 410 stainless steel, then surface hardened by nitriding) that was a component of the main fuel-control linkage of an aircraft engine fractured in flight after a service life of less than 50 h. Investigation (radiographic inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... be improved by through hardening or induction surface hardening of the teeth. Catastrophic wear Chain drives Chemical processing industry Shafts (power) UNS G10200 UNS G10450 1020 1045 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear Background Replacement sprockets ( Fig. 1 ) installed...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Countershaft pinion that fractured in fatigue at roots of teeth because of incomplete hardening at tooth surfaces. (a) Schematic illustration of the pinion, which was sand cast from a chromium-molybdenum steel. Dimensions given in inches. (b) Macrograph of a nital-etched section through More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 26 (a) Shaft exhibiting peeling-type cracks at a keyway. (b) Cross-sectional image showing that the shaft was surface hardened, which likely contributed to the crack path around the circumference More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Deformation, surface cracking, and spalling on the raceway of the outer ring (made of 4140 steel) of a large bearing caused it to be replaced from a radar antenna. The raceway surfaces were to be flame hardened to 55 HRC minimum and 50 HRC 3.2 mm below the surface, according...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... bull gears that had spalling teeth was submitted for evaluation ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Spur gear tooth, SAE 4147H, quenched and tempered to 311 HB, machined completely, induction hardened with a tooth space inductor by traversing one tooth space at a time. (a) Surface spalling along one tooth flank...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-hardened at the flat ends. While the core material with the full wall thickness had the quench structure of low carbon steel ( Fig. 2 ), the structure of the flattened area consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a small amount of pearlite (quench troostite) and ferrite ( Fig. 3 ). At the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Carbon has a profound effect on both the martensite hardness and the steel hardenability. The mathematical estimation for steel surface hardness is based upon carbon content alone. The predominant additional elements of interest in hardenability calculations are manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Photomicrographs showing (a) white hardened layer near surface, (b) untempered martensitic structure, at 1000× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 16 Cracking, deformation, and a white hardened layer at the journal surface of Crank #1 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Hardened structure associated with surface cracks. (×100). More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Surface of a torsional-fatigue fracture in an induction-hardened 1041 (1541) steel shaft. The shaft fractured after 450 hours of endurance testing. 1 1 4 × More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 36 Fracture surface of a hardened steel connecting rod. Arrows indicate large inclusions. Fatigue cracking initiated from the middle inclusion. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Fracture surface of a hardened steel valve spring that failed in torsional fatigue. Arrow indicates fracture origin at a subsurface nonmetallic inclusion. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 38 Fracture surface of a carburized-and-hardened steel roller. As a result of banded alloy segregation, circumferential fatigue fracture initiated at a subsurface origin near the case/core interface (arrow). More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 12 Fracture surface of subsized impact coupon prepared from the hardened perimeter of the axle, showing cleavage rupture with river patterns. 3400×. More