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surface diffusion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... propagation no 1989 EB (cracked) =6 no corrosion product/no cracking yes—EB weld out on flange 1989 EB no no corrosion product/no cracking yes—EB weld out on flange 1990 EB no no no pits or corrosion product yes—all flange surface and outside diffuser 1990 MP =12 no some corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... cycle eliminated embrittlement in pins plated with a bright coating that did not allow the escape of mobile hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the use of a bright, impervious cadmium electroplate that hinders the diffusion of mobile hydrogen outward from the surface of the pin. After...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-Corrosion Cracking , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 823 – 860 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553 Metallographic Examination Material Coatings or Surface Layers Corrosion or Wear Deposits Most Probable Cause Remedial Action...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... ratio. Metallographic investigations revealed that the surface of the attacked pipes consisted of (Cr, Fe) carbide. The metal dusting was the result of a decomposition process (CO to CO2 + C) that deposited C on the pipe surface. Because of the high temperature, the C subsequently diffused through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for the exterior surface of the weld. A segmented backup ring with a gas channel was used inside the vessel to shield the weld root. The pressure vessel failed due to contamination of the fusion zone by oxygen, which resulted when the gas shielding the root face of the weld was diluted by air that leaked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the conclusion that prolonged heating of the galvanized steel heater shells caused the zinc-rich surface to become alloyed with iron and reduce the number of layers. Also, heating caused zinc to diffuse along grain boundaries toward the center of the sheet. Zinc in the grain boundaries reacted with iron to form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... this layer, coke readily accumulates on the surface of the tubes, fueling carbon diffusion into the metal and a corresponding degradation in microstructure and loss of ductility at high temperatures. radiant tube stress rupture thermal shock heat resistant steel carbide precipitates SEM-EDS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A desuperheater diffuser nozzle in the steam supply line failed within nine months of service in an 8.25 MN/sq m (1200 psig) steam line. The nozzle was an austenitic stainless steel casting in conformance to material. The nozzle had numerous cracks on the inside and outside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diffusion), temperature-assisted grain-boundary evolution, and temperature-driven surface oxidation, among other things. Furthermore, the mechanisms occurring in any given situation may occur at differing magnitudes relative to others, may dominate at different periods and time phasing relative to others...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... effects released nascent hydrogen, which diffused into the steel under the influence of sustained tensile stresses. A second factor was a cluster of non-metallic inclusions which had ‘tributary’ cracks starting from them. These sub-surface microcracks probably developed under the influence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... but is beneficial in photo-documentation at closer focal lengths. Fig. 10 Fracture surface fiber optic ring lighting. (a) Fiber optic ring light copystand setup. (b) Resulting fiber optic ring light photograph of a fatigue fracture Fluorescent lighting produces a more diffuse lighting when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the cleavage surfaces by surface diffusion and, possibly, vapor phase etching during subsequent heat treatment of the casting. The mixed fracture in the transition zone preceding the fatigue boundary and overload fracture of flake 3, and in the stippled region of flake 2 ( Fig. 2 ), probably resulted from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... severe than LME because the ratecontrolling process for SMIE, viz. surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms from their source to the crack tip, is much slower than the rate-controlling step for LME, viz. capillary flow of liquid metal to the crack tip (or possibly adsorption at the crack tip) [ 18...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Fig. 7 Fracture surface in type 310 stainless steel flange, showing separation along columnar dendrite boundaries typical of fusion-zone solidification cracks. Fig. 9 Fracture edge of exit diffuser flange of type 405 stainless steel, showing cracking (small arrow) and shear-type plastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... already occurred. The total absence of decarburization on the trepanned plugs at the inside surface of the shell and the minor decarburization of the head suggested that hydrogen diffusion was limited to the head regions adjacent to the HAZ or that hydrogen diffused into the metal at temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the oxide near the substrate. Gas components (e.g., HCl, SO 2 , O 2 , and Cl 2 ), molten sulfide, and chlorides are believed to much more easily diffuse and penetrate into the surfaces of substrates. In the present work, the lamellar oxide structure, as well as the existence of chloride and sulfide near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for the cracks on the bend extrados surface. Copper diffusion weakens the austenite grain boundary at ~980 °C (bending temperature). The weak austenite grains are no longer strong enough to sustain the tensile forces experienced by the bend extrados and hence a generation of cracks mostly transverses to the pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the carburizing atmosphere forces the migration of nitrogen present in the tube toward the outside surface. However, there may be exceptions. In one hydrogen-reformer furnace, for example, there was a joint inward diffusion of carbon and nitrogen, because the methane-gas feed contained 18% N. Analyses showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., this is not always a reliable means of removing hydrogen from electroplated steels, because certain types of plated surfaces can form an impervious barrier in preventing outward diffusion of the hydrogen charged during plating. This is especially likely in bright cadmium-plated surfaces, where brighteners have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... diffusion of carbon and exposed more metal surfaces. These surfaces acted as catalysts for the metal dusting reaction. Measurement of the degree of ferromagnetism is an easy method of determining the extent of metal damage in other areas of the waste heat boiler. Metal that is magnetic should...