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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (light areas) around the tube surfaces. Etched with NH 4 OH plus H 2 O. Original magnification: 3.7×. (b) Unetched section through the outer surface of the tube shown in (a); dark pattern shows dealloyed region. Original magnification: 85×. (c) Etched section through a copper alloy C71500 tube showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... present to the gas a surface area considerably greater than that of a homogeneous material. Chlorine gas Combustion Compressors Corrosion environments Ignition Lubrication Piston rods Fe-0.35C (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion It is known that under suitable conditions iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on several cross sections removed from the impeller body. Areas that appeared to have the most severe surface damage were sectioned, fractured open, and examined using SEM. The chemistry of the impeller and an apparent repair weld were also analyzed. The examination indicated that the cracks were shrinkage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A low-carbon steel (St35.8) tube in a phthalic anhydride reactor system failed. Visual and stereomicroscopic examination of fracture surfaces revealed heavy oxide/deposits on the outer surface of the tube, tube wall thinning in the area of the fracture, and discolorations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and calibrated using the back-surface-reflection method to determine whether adequate ultrasonic penetration was available. Areas of indications were noted at approximately midheight and adjacent to the bore area. An axial angle-beam inspection from the outside was performed, mainly in the area of indications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) surface of the plate and proceeded through its thickness. The fracture morphology was characteristic of fatigue. A beveled area on the inside surface of the plate indicated that the implant had been fractured for some time prior to removal. Metallographic examination of samples cut from the plate section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract A stamped coin exhibited visible discolored areas, seen as a tan haze on the surface. The discoloration was considered merely cosmetic. The nonstained and stained regions were studied using SEM/EDS. Greater amounts of aluminum and magnesium were found in the stained area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... near -18 deg C (0 deg F). During the summer, similar shafts had a service life of 5 to eight months. Examination of the fracture surface showed brittle fatigue cracks, and visual examination of the splines disclosed heavy chatter marks at the root of the spline, with burrs and tears at the fillet area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and pearlite. It was established that the incipient cracks found in liquid-penetrant inspection had originated at the surface in the banded region, in areas of ferrite where this constituent had been visibly deformed by grinding. Closer control on the microstructure, hardness of the forgings and smooth finish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The entire surface of the die was covered with fatigue cracks and many fillets had been plastically deformed. Several other types of damage were also observed, including areas of oxidation, corrosion pits, voids, abrasive wear, die adhesion, and thermal fatigue. Fatigue cracking was the primary cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was the primary cause of failure. Rubbing of the faying surfaces worked the interference area on the post until small tears developed. These small tears became stress-concentration points that nucleated fatigue cracks. Recommendations included rounding the edge of the box in the area of contact with the post...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A bridge wheel on a crane, forged from 1055 steel, fractured after one year of service. The wheel fractured in the web between the hub and the rim. A small area containing beach marks that originated in a heavily burned area on the web surface was revealed by visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... for examination. Examination included optical and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces and metallographic examination of cross sections through the fracture surface. From the outer to inner edge of the fracture surface, three different areas were observed. Fracture features in area 1 were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... on the outer surface of the tube were revealed by metallographic examination of a cross section of the failed area. Impingement attack which led to perforation was revealed by both the ridgelike appearance of the damaged area and the undercut pitting. The heat exchanger was retubed with tubes made of aluminum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., energy-dispersive chemical analysis, physical and mechanical evaluation. Stereomicroscopic examination of the opened crack fracture surface revealed one large fan-shaped region that had propagated radially through the thickness of the material from two distinct origin areas on the internal diam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Typical microstructure of a 27Ag–73W contact. The light areas are silver, the dark areas tungsten. 380× Coatings on Surface Layers Associated Environments Ammonia fumes were carried by air-circulating fans throughout the plant. The relative humidity at the time was high. When the devices were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Parts of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel that had been forged at about 815 deg C (1500 deg F) were gas tungsten arc welded. During postweld inspection, cracks were found in the HAZs of the welds. Welding had been done using a copper fixture that contacted the steel in the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... hardening of the surface. Indifferent results were obtained in induction hardening; cracks were noticed, and patchy hardness figures were obtained on the final product in several batches. Metallographic examination of transverse sections through the defective areas showed decarburization to varying degrees...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... with polyurethane on the inside surface. The top of the jackscrew was 6150 steel. Both ends of the pins were revealed to be dented where the jackscrew had pressed into them and were observed to have been resulted due to overdriving the jackscrew at the end of an unkneeling cycle. These dented areas were found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... area adjacent to the hub. Detailed SEM examination confirmed a fatigue mode of failure in this area with a primary single origin on the inside surface of the shank. The main fatigue origin site was coincident with one of the defects on the inner surface of the blade shank. The most probable source...