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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... bellows, and battery-flash unit is capable of producing excellent results. It may be desirable to supplement the 35-mm equipment with an instant camera and close-up lenses. Techniques and lighting are discussed in more detail in the article “Photography in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. When...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the life of the bearing. Also, a mechanism that is active for one period in the life of a bearing can lead to or can even be supplemented by another mechanism, which then produces failure. Thus, in some instances, a single mechanism will be obvious; in others, indications of several mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Supplemental Articles,” in this online Volume). Tool and Die Characteristics Steels used for tools and dies differ from most other steels in several aspects. First, they are used in the manufacture of other products by a variety of forming processes (stamping, shearing, punching, rolling, bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 10 MPa (1450 psi) from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground. Microbial communities exist in environments as diverse as subzero snowfields and deep ocean thermal vents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are interdependent, much like the links of a chain (see the article “Why Tools and Dies Fail” in the Section “Supplemental Articles” in this online Volume). If one step is poorly executed, the tool or die will exhibit limited service life regardless of how carefully all of the other steps are conducted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and techniques followed in failure investigation of boilers and related equipment are discussed. The article is framed with an objective to provide systematic information on various damage mechanisms leading to the failure of boiler tubes, headers, and drums, supplemented by representative case studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the long-term behavior at given temperatures of plastic cages made of PA66, with glass-fiber reinforcement and heat stabilization, in different lubricating media. Fig. 8 Long-term behavior of plastic cage made of PA66-GF25 and glass fibers under varying temperatures and different oils. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of exhaust gases from a combustion turbine (CT). The steam produced in the HRSG is sent either to a steam turbine (ST) to produce electricity and/or to be used in another process. Natural gas is normally used for fuel, although some CTs are fired with oil or are designed for both natural gas and oil fuels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... as to when periods of degradation began; maintenance records and interviews with operators can supplement machine data. When the performance parameters indicate a potential failure, confirmation of the nature and extent of the damage can be carried out by borescope inspection without disassembly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... into service in 1953 at an average depth of 40″ (1.0m) in the ground. It was subsequently learned that corrosion protection provisions included an organic coating of Lion Oil Company E-120 followed by wrapping with a fiberglass/asbestos wrapping material. This barrier protection was supplemented with cathodic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by tensile stresses developed due to non-axial loading, which were probably supplemented by compressive stress waves that became tensile when reflected. The small radial ridges near the periphery show that a series of cracks broke out there and joined together to form several crack fronts separated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The descriptions of the analytical techniques are supplemented by a series of case studies that include pertinent visual examination results and the corresponding images that aid in the characterization of the failures. The article describes the methods used for determining the molecular weight of a plastic resin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., pipelines have proven to be the safest and most efficient ( Ref 1 ). However, the pipeline infrastructure is aging; more than half of all miles of oil and gas pipelines in the United States were installed before 1970 ( Ref 2 ). Like other forms of infrastructure, pipelines require maintenance and integrity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to a mean hoop stress of 78,500 psi., followed with complete radiographic, ultrasonic, and penetrant dye inspection. As a supplement to this matter of variable stress condition due to cold working, it was also found by machining thin layers from the exciter end bell of Toronto unit No. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the brazing temperature. Generally, fluxes, reducing gas protective atmospheres, and vacuum are intended to maintain surface cleanliness. Contaminants, such as oil, graphite, molybdenum disulfide, or lead lubricants used during machining or forming, must be removed before assembly. Oil and grease...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by soldering, brazing, or resistance welding; thus, the ability of the tube material to accept these processes is important. Oil coolers often use integral-finned (extruded) tubing. This type of tubing requires a material with a significant amount of ductility to ensure that the extended surface can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... example, when damage occurs by electrical discharge (for example, if a crane touches a power line or if welding has been done on a component on a vehicle while the electrical ground is connected through the unit), the damage can show up in the form of local arcing through the oil film in bearings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is connected through the unit), the damage can show up in the form of local arcing through the oil film in bearings and in local heating at contacting surfaces. Visual or macroscopic examination can reveal these features, as illustrated in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Electrical discharge and arcing through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... if supplemented by a more concentrated source of light. By exploration at all possible viewing angles with this lighting, features may be revealed that otherwise could escape detection. Common Causes of Failures Overstressing is a common cause of failure of springs. Settling and other types of distortion...