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superalloy powder

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... considerations, and quality assurance. The emphasis is on the design and metallurgical aspects for the two main types of metal AM processes: powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). The article also describes the processes involved in binder jet sintering, provides information on the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coatings that improve performance of superalloy. diffusion gas turbines high-temperature coatings high-temperature corrosion interdiffusion oxidation superalloys WHEN CORROSION FAILURES OCCUR at high temperatures (300 to 1700 °C, or 570 to 3090 °F), the unscheduled outages result in loss...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 1150 2100 4 405, 410 705 1300 4 416 675 1245 4 420 620 1150 4 430 815 1500 4 440 760 1400 4 442 980 1795 4 446 1095 2005 4 Superalloys N-155 iron-base superalloy 1040 1900 1 S-816 cobalt-base superalloy 980 1800 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and sulfur treatments for sulfide, alumina, and silicate inclusions ( Ref 19 ). Hard inclusions in the workpiece material can abrade the cutting tool material ( Ref 20 ). Inclusions, porosity, and oxide films in powder metallurgy steels can reduce their machinability, but closing the pores, increased...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. This article does not address powder metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rate also depends on the stabilized wear mechanism. Fretting wear usually promotes either abrasive wear or adhesive wear phenomena. Abrasive wear implies a plowing process of the softer material by harder asperities, favoring the formation of oxide powder debris. It could be a two-body abrasive wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Turbine blade superalloy Stress-corrosion cracking Cavitation wear Fatigue fracture Corrosion fatigue Introduction Turbine blade failure was defined, for the purposes of an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) survey on the subject [ 1 ], as: “a situation where inspection of the turbine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... white cast iron (standard gray or ductile cast irons are poor), high-chromium (that is, 13 to 28%) alloy steel, cobalt-base superalloys such as Stellite, and special nickel-base alloys such as Ni-Hard. These materials are useful not only for the flow-path surfaces but also as sleeves in sealing areas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... atomic number embedded in the surface. This particular example is of a failed superalloy shaft. Lead from a nearby failed journal bearing, invisible in the secondary image, is readily apparent in the BSE image. Fig. 7 Electron images of a superalloy shaft fracture. (a) Backscattered electron image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... example is of a failed superalloy shaft. Lead from a nearby failed journal bearing, invisible in the secondary image, is readily apparent in the BSE image. Fig. 7 Electron images of a superalloy shaft fracture. (a) Backscattered electron image. (b) Secondary electron image. Bright areas are lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The more common ones, which are described briefly in this section, are x-ray analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Energy-Dispersive X-Ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Particulate erosion of a ductile steel impeller by an abrasive catalyst. Original magnification: (a) 0.25×, (b) 1× Erosion-resistant metals include white cast iron (standard gray or ductile cast irons have poor resistance), high-chromium (that is, 13 to 28%) alloy steel, cobalt-base superalloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanisms. Consider, for example, cracking observed in the trailing edges of several service-run gas turbine blades made from cast IN 738 nickel-base superalloy ( Fig. 1 ). When one of the cracks was broken open and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), fractographic examination revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... service-run cast IN-738 nickel-base superalloy gas turbine blades ( Fig. 1 ). Fractographic examination of a fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an intergranular crack surface at the trailing edge ( Fig. 2 ). Comparison with images in an atlas of fracture features taken from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or minimizes attack on the metal and the consequent generation of nascent hydrogen. Salt baths operated at approximately 210 °C (410 °F) can be used for descaling titanium alloys, superalloys, and refractory metals to avoid the possibility of hydrogen charging associated with pickling. Plating solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction. Almost all materials, save perhaps parts made by powder metallurgy processes, demonstrate anisotropic behavior. Anisotropic behavior means that the mechanical properties are different in different directions. For the common wrought products such as bar, extrusion, plate, sheet, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., superalloys, and refractory metals to avoid the possibility of hydrogen charging associated with pickling. Plating solutions and plating conditions selected to produce a high-cathode efficiency minimize the amount of hydrogen generated on the metal surface. Because the metallic coatings plated on metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the liquid penetrant may corrode the metal. Surface films may prevent detection of discontinuities. Penetrant may be a source of contamination that masks results in subsequent chemical analysis of fracture surfaces. The process is generally not suited to inspection of low-density powder-metallurgy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Intergranular brittle fracture is very prevalent in ceramic materials and is often present in poorly sintered powder metallurgy constructs. It is necessary for the practicing failure analyst to understand that intergranular brittle fracture is not always due to defects and improper processing. This mechanism...