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sulfuric acid process

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the corrosion to an acceptable limit. Chemical processing equipment Sulfuric acid, environment UNS S31603 UNS N08020 316L 20Cb Uniform corrosion Background Neutralization tanks made of type 316L (UNS S31603) stainless steel became severely corroded in service, even though field corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A gray cast iron (ASTM 247 type A) gate valve in an oleum and sulfuric acid piping loop at a chemical process plant fractured catastrophically after approximately 10 years of service. The valve was a 150 mm (6 in.) bolted flange type rated to conform to ANSI B16.1 for service at 1034...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... are machined on the flat side, oiled, deburred, hot formed, cleaned, penetrant inspected, covered with oil, and then shotpeened. They are then recoated with oil, shipped to a second vendor, handwiped with a solvent, alkaline cleaned, acid desmutted, sulfuric acid anodized, and hot water sealed. Investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was responsible for the SCC failure of the RTJ components. SCC failure by polythionic acid in petrochemical industries is a concern and hence, appropriate preventive measures are generally incorporated in the system so that the process gas containing sulfur and H 2 S is free from O 2 and H 2 O as far...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... digestion for the range of ferrous and nonferrous materials typically encountered. The use of microwave-assisted acid digestion usually improves the efficacy and rate of the digestion process. Digestion vessels must be compatible with the acid mixtures. The ICP-OES spray chambers, nebulizers, and injectors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... no blisters could be discerned visually. Only the butt welds and their adjoining areas proved to be crack-free. The black film developed large quantities of hydrogen sulfide when drops of sulfuric acid were applied and dyed bromide paper saturated with sulfuric acid (Baumann Sulfur Print) dark ( Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., 20% sulfuric acid in methanol. 28× Fig. 5 Gamma prime structures from blade shown in Fig. 4 as viewed in the SEM. Note presence of coarse (primary) gamma prime particles in blade root midwall (a), which are lacking in the denuded zone of the trailing edge (b). Etch: electrolytic, 20...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... and salts of organic acids, in addition to hydroxyl functionality. The discoloration was caused by localized rusting of the sink from prolonged exposure to a chloride containing substance. The appearance suggests that the substance may actually have been a drop of perspiration (sweat) from a factory worker...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to analyze an automotive polyoxymethylene (POM) sensor housing that was depolymerizing during service. It was found that a combination of heat, oxygen, and sulfuric acid attacked and caused premature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... product from each pipe section were analyzed for carbon, sulfur, and iron and were found to consist mainly of iron sulfide mixed with soot and rust. The damage resulted from a high content of hydrogen sulfide in the gas (6% CO2, 20% CO, 8 to 12% H2, 0.5 to 1.5% CH4, remainder N2). To process the coal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and active and passive MIC scenarios are considered. In active scenarios, the organisms participate directly in corrosion processes. Microorganisms involved include SRB and acid producers. In this case, sulfur-oxidizing aerobic bacteria, such as Thiobacilli , that produce very acidic conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Halophiles that have evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product of their metabolism, while other microorganisms survive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract A steam heated exchanger was designed for concentrating sulfuric acid. Tantalum was selected for the tubing and the tube sheet liner because of its outstanding corrosion resistance. However, although the exchanger passed a searching shop inspection, it leaked during site testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the weld areas and away from the weld zones. Terraced, near-surface pits with subsurface caverns and a high level of sulfur in the pit residue, both indicative of bacteria-induced corrosion, were found. No evidence of weld defects or defective material was present. Testing of the water used at the wash...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., which are natural components of wood. The batch process begins with filling the vessel ( Fig. 1 ) with wood chips and white and black liquor. This slurry is heated to 205 °C (400 °F) under a pressure of 965 kPa (140 psi) for approximately 2 1 2 h. The digested material is then discharged...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... refractories such as silica, fireclay, and ganister as the lining for the furnace. An acid slag practice was employed. Because of the use of acid lining in the open hearth furnace and the acid slag practice, phosphorus and sulfur could not be removed during the steelmaking process. Low sulfur steel could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Grate bars in the traveling grate indurators in several taconite processing units suffered excessive corrosion following a conversion from acid to fluxed pellet production procedures. The campaign life of the HH grade cast stainless steel bars was reduced from more than 7 years...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... order of estimated life). Hot Corrosion Hot corrosion is a complex process involving both sulfidation and oxidation ( Ref 27 ). Hot corrosion is a form of accelerated oxidation that affects alloys and coatings exposed to high-temperature gases contaminated with sulfur and alkali metal salts ( Ref...