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sulfide stress corrosion resistance

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... grain size was interpreted to have contributed. The piping material was changed from carbon steel to AISI type 316 stainless steel as it is readily weldable and resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide. Pipe fittings Materials substitution Sulfurization Low-carbon steel Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... evaluated. In addition, a lower strength, 70 ksi (483 MPa) yield strength grade may perform better since it should have inherently better resistance to sulfide stress cracking than the higher-strength grades. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Warke W. R. , Stress-Corrosion Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thickness. (Eq 1) CSR = ∑ a ⋅ b = w ⋅ t ⋅ 100 , (Eq 2) CLR = ∑ a / w ⋅ 100 , (Eq 3) CTR = ∑ b / w ⋅ 100 . Sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) resistance was evaluated as per NACE TM0177-96 method “A” using cylindrical test piece...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... for good corrosion resistance and a better design of the rod string for an even distribution of stresses. The resulting recommendations are restrictive and may pay significant attention to economic factors. Therefore, many operators continue to use carbon or alloy steel components with an appropriate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was removed from an intact pipe joint. The pipe was required to be 60 mm (2 3 8 in.) OD, 7 kg/m (4.7 lb/ft) API Specification 5A grade J-55 ERW pipe (the current specification is API 5CT). NACE Standard MR0175, “Material Requirements for Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with hardness values of 225 HB (20 HRC) or higher cracked. Steels with hardness values less than 22 HRC are considered acceptable for sour service. Metallic materials resistant to sulfide stress cracking for oil-field equipment are covered in National Association of Corrosion Engineers standard (MR-01) “Sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of sulfide stress cracking is embrittlement resulting from hydrogen absorbed into steel during corrosion in sour environments. The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the environment promotes hydrogen absorption into steel, thereby making the environment more severe and thus more likely to cause hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide at temperatures to 400 °C (750 °F). Chloride concentration in the plant was very low; however, postweld stress relief was used to minimize residual stresses and to avoid the possibility of SCC. A less expensive alternative would have been to use a 5% Cr steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to attack by sulfides and because reduction of shrinkage voids may not eliminate the attack, a change in impeller composition was recommended. Cast stainless steel is a common material of construction for pump impellers. Cast martensitic stainless steels have excellent corrosion resistance in a feedwater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... they were in service for three to four months. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if the failure mode was hydrogen-stress cracking, if sulfides accelerate the failure, if heat treatment can improve the resistance against this failure mode, and if the type 305 austenitic stainless steel would...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of EAC include sulfide-stress cracking (SSC), hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC), near-neutral pH stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and corrosion fatigue. Accelerated corrosion and enhanced hydrogen uptake can increase the probability of cracking as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the corresponding oxides ( Ref 9 ). Adding chromium improves resistance to sulfide attack and increases the operating temperature limits of an alloy in a sulfidizing environment. Chromium sulfide formed below the surface of the protective oxide layer can lead to depletion of chromium and breakaway corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the sulfur content below 0.020%, since sulfide inclusions aligned on the rolling direction are sources of mechanical anisotropy and reduce resistance to corrosion [ 8 , 9 ]. The high nitrogen content and the low nickel content do not seem to be harmful to the material used in this application...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... lengths were observed at different locations of bolt threads, as shown in Fig. 8 and 9 . The crack path was transgranular, typical of chloride stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel, as shown in Fig. 8 . Sulfide stress-corrosion cracking (SSCC) is excluded in the current case because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is readily weldable and resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide at temperatures to 400 °C (750 °F). Chloride concentration in the plant was very low; however, postweld stress relief was used to minimize residual stresses and to avoid the possibility of SCC. A less expensive alternative would have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... indicated a burst strength of 13,500 psi for the intact sections of tubing. Scanning electron microscopy and metallographic examination revealed that the tubing failed due to corrosion pitting exacerbated by stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The pitting originated on the outer surface of the tube and ranged...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that were able to produce acetic acid and hydrogen sulfide on corrosion fatigue for ASTM A36, API 5L, X52, and X70 steel. A significant increase in crack-growth rate, observed across a wide range of stress-intensity-factor amplitudes, was attributed to hydrogen uptake into the steel. Metastable sulfur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...% of the total failures [ 1 ]. SCC results from the combined action of three factors, namely, sustained tensile stresses in the material, a corrosive medium (a chloride-bearing or hydrogen-sulfide environment), and elevated temperature. There are also other factors which affect the SCC mechanism in austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... at 530 deg C. The connectors were made of SAE 4140 Cr-Mo steel. The material for the rod pipes was Fe-0.4C-1Mn steel. Structural stresses played a role in the cracking. Iron sulfide formed on the fracture planes and flake-like stress cracks occurred in the steel. The hydrogen sulfide content of the gas...