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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Turbine Materials in Marine Environment , Bath, England , 1976 , pp. 1 – 11 . 7. Anon.: in Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , Vol. 13 , Corrosion , ASM International , 1987 , p. 1001 . 8. Anon.: in Inspection and Acceptance Requirements Investment Cast W501B/B6 Turbine Blades , TIS 1004...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the steel spool piece were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A scale of iron oxides was present on all opened crack surfaces. Crack surfaces were cleaned using an HCI-thiourea solution in an ultrasonic bath. The clean surface exhibited a faceted morphology, indicating intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For example, aluminum is anodic to zinc in an aqueous 1 M sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ) solution and cathodic to iron in an aqueous 1 M sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) solution ( Ref 4 ). Emf Series The emf series is a table that lists in order the standard electrode potentials of specified...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). After several hours, the drying agent became saturated and was taken off the line and regenerated by gas that was heated to 290 to 345 °C (550 to 650 °F) in a salt-bath heat exchanger. Figure 3(a) shows the arrangement of the 75-mm (3-in.) diam schedule 40 piping for the dehydrator system. After 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the galvanic series for seawater is not necessarily valid in nonsaline solutions. For example, aluminum is anodic to zinc in an aqueous 1 M sodium chromate (Na 2 CrO 4 ) solution and cathodic to iron in an aqueous 1 M sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) solution ( Ref 4 ). Electromotive Force Series...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... water as cooling tower makeup water. Gray water is classified as recycled sewage water generated from dishwashers, clothes laundry, and bath water. The water treatment program used copper inhibitor tolytriazole (TTA) between 1 and 2 ppm, bacteria control by free chlorine between 0.2 and 0.5 ppm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the vessel at a pressure of 4.5 MPa (650 psi) and at a temperature of 40 to 45 °C (100 to 110 °F). After several hours, the drying agent became saturated and was taken off the line and regenerated by gas that was heated to 290 to 345 °C (550 to 650 °F) in a salt-bath heat exchanger. Figure 3(a) shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Deposits on the Fracture Surface Specify a Proper and Appropriate Hardness Range Specify Proper Heat Treating and Tempering Ensure Good Cleaning Solution Maintenance Ensure Good Plating Solution Maintenance and/or Proper Selection of Plating Bath Composition Ensure Proper Postplating Baking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Maintenance and/or Proper Selection of Plating Bath Composition Ensure Proper Postplating Baking Procedure Follow Good Manufacturing Practices Perform Destructive Testing on Samples Sustained Tensile Stresses Visual Examination for Fracture-Surface Orientation Visual Examination or Optical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... concentrated in areas where the local water supply had certain chemical characteristics, specifically, water rich in sodium bicarbonate and lacking in sulfates. Over time, sodium bicarbonate in boiler water decomposed to sodium carbonate, which then hydrolyzed to form sodium hydroxide ( Ref 5 ). Sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2