1-20 of 59 Search Results for

substitutional solid solutions

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by crevice corrosion. The tubing in the cooler was replaced, and cooling-water supply was changed from river to city water, which contained no dirt to deposit on the tube surfaces. An alternate solution of installing replacement tubes in the vertical position to make deposition of solids from river water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Power-generation plants use processes that occur without any particles present and involve only the transport of solutions or steam. In these cases, liquid forces on the solid surface, which are due to turbulence or droplet impacts, mechanically remove protective layers of corrosion products, thus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the thickness of the boundary layer in the liquid phase; C sat is the concentration of the dissolving solid, in the liquid, at the interface; C ∞ is the concentration of the dissolving phase in the bulk of the liquid; and D is the effective diffusion coefficient in the solution for the exchange...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., attenuated total reflectance, and combined technologies such as gas chromatography FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/FTIR; solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; and Raman spectroscopy. Only the characterization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... evidence for LME since lateral resolution and sensitivity of the BSE mode are well suited for detection of embrittling heavy metals. In LME, foreign metals with the potential to cause this kind of material degradation, i.e. that do not go into solid solution with the parent alloy (mixing gap—not a must...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... In these instances, fatigue strength or stress-rupture strength is substituted for yield strength as a point of reference, typically with different factors of safety. Limit Analysis The upper limit in design is defined as the load at which a structure will break or collapse under a single application of force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... resulting from notch effects. Classical design is also used for setting allowable stresses in other applications, for example, where fracture can occur by fatigue or stress rupture. In these instances, fatigue strength or stress-rupture strength is substituted for yield strength as a point of reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the viscoelastic behavior of plastics in their solid state only, from the standpoint of the material deforming without fracturing. The consequences of viscoelasticity on the mechanical properties of plastics are described, especially in terms of time-dependencies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of several types of failure in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “Stress-Corrosion Cracking,” “Liquid-Metal and Solid-Metal Induced Embrittlement,” “Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement,” “Corrosive Wear Failures,” “Biological Corrosion Failures,” and “High-Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” described previously is very good on a properly maintained and calibrated piece of equipment. However, the methods performed on solid specimens can only measure the layers available. A specimen properly sampled for wet chemical or combustion analysis will contain all the layers of the material, from surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., selection of a probability distribution, the failure model definition, and a definition of the probability of failure. The article also explains the solution techniques for special cases and general solution techniques, such as first-second-order reliability methods, the advanced mean value method...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress, an environment, and a susceptible material. Although manifest mostly in metals, it can also occur in other engineering solids, such as ceramics and polymers. Removal of or changes in any one of these three factors will often eliminate or reduce susceptibility to SCC and therefore are obvious ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and prevention of several types of failures in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “ Stress-Corrosion Cracking ,” “ Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement ,” “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” “ Biological Corrosion Failures ,” and “ High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... sections in this article. Lastly, it is common for titanium brazed joints to have a composite structure consisting of intermetallics, solid solutions, and eutectic constituents. Phase compositions and the volume of different phases depend on brazing temperature, holding time, cooling rate, width...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sectioning destroy evidence needed for failure analysis. Fracture of a part in service is often intimately associated with the type of environment to which the part was exposed. Active chemical environments include water, salt air, salt water, acid solutions, alkaline solutions, molten metal, and even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the combination of large cathode and a small anode, as develops in such cases. The solution of magnetite by caustic alkali results in the formation of sodium ferroate and ferrite, in accordance with the following equation 3 :— Fe 3 O 4 + 4 NAOH = Na 2 FeO 2 ( Ferroate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between hcp and bcc materials can vary depending on temperature and available slip systems. Rhombohedral Less symmetrical through triclinic Influence of degree of order (most to least ductile) Random solid solution Ordered or intermetallic compound Ionic compound Covalent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reheaters are more apt to experience exfoliation than superheaters and because prevention is difficult, the most effective solution is to replace the affected tubes. Recommendations involved inspecting the tubes by radiography to find the circuits with the greatest accumulation of debris and replacing them...