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stretch forming

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that the casting could be twisted and stretched as through made of rubber. The chemistry of the casting was acceptable for CN-7M. The reason the part failed is a continuous film of carbide with a continuous crack running parallel to the carbides. This sensitized structure produces an area depleted in protective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., but this comes at the expense of a larger blank size to accommodate the beads. Bead geometry must be such that metal flow is sufficiently restricted to obtain the additional sidewall stretch but not to the extent that splits form in the bead area. The blankholder and ram must be able to provide appropriate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The springs formed from 3.8 mm diam cold-drawn carbon steel wire failed to comply with load-test requirements. A split wire in the spring was revealed by investigation. A smooth heat-tinted longitudinal zone was observed in the fracture. It was concluded that the spring failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of performance must also be addressed. The question is: Does the consumer expect the hook to stretch and bend when pulled, or is snapping (brittle failure) a common possibility? If unstable brittle fracture is common in fishhooks, a case against the fishhook manufacturer/supplier has no merit. Research...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., the physical structures of crazes formed under different conditions were found to be quite similar. Based on the TEM examination, it is believed that craze structure consists of bulk polymer and stretched fibrils along the direction of applied stress. As a result of TEM studies by these researchers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and the bacterial population was expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/gm). Partial Biochemical Characterization of the Isolates Morphologically dissimilar dominating isolated colonies were selected randomly, further streaked on B4M agar plates and purified. The pure cultures were maintained in B4M...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the blast pressure in such a way as to form curls. As Fig. 3 shows, we noted such curls in a rather badly crumpled piece of aluminum. Detailed chemical analyses of all fragments later proved this piece to come from the bottom of the waste towel disposal unit under, the sink in the lefthand lavatory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... discontinuous ring and the lighter gray portion in the core, which, at two points, stretches to the surface at the bottom of the thread ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Screw fracture. The dark surface of the fracture at the thread bottom was formed because of stress corrosion. The central bright part was formed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... resulting from a relatively high strain rate event and/or significant stress concentration. A relatively sharp corner formed by a retaining tab on the older design was shown to be a primary cause of the failures. Design Injection moldings Latches Stress concentration Polyacetal Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) Source: Ref 19 Orientation Straining of polymers can result in stretched areas of parallel, linear, partially ordered structures, as shown in Fig. 5(c) . This uniaxial orientation results from forming processes such as fiber spinning, pipe and profile extrusion, and flat-film extrusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from healing during working. In this case, the hole simply stretches out during forging or rolling, producing a linear cracklike seam in the workpiece surface. Slivers are loose or torn pieces of steel rolled into the surface. Rolled-in scale is scale formed during rolling. Ferrite fingers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the sliding contacts. Lubrication (or other forms of protective-surface film) breakdown relates to the loss of the basic function of the protective film—to provide some degree of separation between the sliding surfaces. If the sliding surfaces are not separated, then adhesion and subsequent wear are almost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the failed vessel revealed brittle fracture surface features. This was indicated by the lack of stress whitening and permanent deformation. Limited ductility, in the form of stretching, was found exclusively within the final fracture zones. On cutting the vessel, significant stress relief, in the form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... at room temperature. Some parts produced by cold forming have very high orientation of molecules in the plane of the thickness (biaxial orientation), because the parts are stretched in both length and breadth during forming. This makes them much stronger than would be expected from normal material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and tonguelike overlaps. The material has become so hot as a result of deformation that martensite has formed as it cooled rapidly. The same phenomena were observed on the second, wire. In this case there was a clear association between the fracture and a transverse crack in the martensitic outer layer ( Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to contacts in nonfailed areas. This suggested a high level of interference stress between the contact and the tab. The fracture surface was further inspected using an optical stereomicroscope. The fracture surface showed no evidence of ductility, as would be evident in the form of stress whitening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... formed by extrusion by the polymer manufacturer. When a monomer is chemically converted to a polymer, it takes the physical form of flakes or fluff. After the fluff is retrieved from the reactor, it is formed into pellets via extrusion. Consumer products that are extruded have a constant two-dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the diameter and lengthwise stretching—before the final break ( Fig. 4 ). This is often accompanied by “orange peel,” in which each grain deforms in a slightly different manner. Orange peel is a result of a distribution of grain orientations, and it produces a rough appearance in originally smoothly machined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are susceptible to hydrolysis. During the condensation polymerization process, water and macromolecules are formed. The water then is removed, and the process repeats itself. The water molecules that are separated during the reaction must be constantly removed to allow the reaction to continue and form a very...