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stretch forming

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Wilson W.R.D. , Tribology in Cold Metal Forming , J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. , Vol 119 , 1997 , p 695 – 698 10.1115/1.2836811 54. Kirkhorn L. , Bushlya V. , Andersson M. , and Ståhl J.-E. , The Influence of Tool Steel Microstructure on Friction in Sheet Metal Forming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 2–3 weeks. The total viable bacterial counts were enumerated, and the bacterial population was expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/gm). Partial Biochemical Characterization of the Isolates Morphologically dissimilar dominating isolated colonies were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the extent that the casting could be twisted and stretched as through made of rubber. The chemistry of the casting was acceptable for CN-7M. The reason the part failed is a continuous film of carbide with a continuous crack running parallel to the carbides. This sensitized structure produces an area depleted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Springback is reduced, but this comes at the expense of a larger blank size to accommodate the beads. Bead geometry must be such that metal flow is sufficiently restricted to obtain the additional sidewall stretch but not to the extent that splits form in the bead area. The blankholder and ram must be able...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... is: Does the consumer expect the hook to stretch and bend when pulled, or is snapping (brittle failure) a common possibility? If unstable brittle fracture is common in fishhooks, a case against the fishhook manufacturer/supplier has no merit. Research in fishhook behavior indicated that stretching should...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of Tardif and Sterling, we knew that metal near an explosion center tends to move away from the blast pressure in such a way as to form curls. As Fig. 3 shows, we noted such curls in a rather badly crumpled piece of aluminum. Detailed chemical analyses of all fragments later proved this piece to come from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from healing during working. In this case, the hole simply stretches out during forging or rolling, producing a linear cracklike seam in the workpiece surface. Slivers are loose or torn pieces of steel rolled into the surface. Rolled-in scale is scale formed during rolling. Ferrite fingers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Components of a steel wire rope. Source: Ref 3 Strength and Stretch The ultimate breaking strength of a wire rope is by design less than the aggregate strength of all the wires and will vary, depending on the construction of rope and grade of wire used. All manufacturers of wire rope publish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract The springs formed from 3.8 mm diam cold-drawn carbon steel wire failed to comply with load-test requirements. A split wire in the spring was revealed by investigation. A smooth heat-tinted longitudinal zone was observed in the fracture. It was concluded that the spring failed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... components, which is addressed in detail in Ref 1 , is not covered in this Volume. Tables 1 and 2 list some general types of macroscale and microscale fractographic features, which are described in more detail in this article. In summary form, the following are key features in distinguishing between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... stretching. It is much more desirable for a chain to stretch or to exhibit wear than to be excessively hard, such that it can fail by brittle fracture from stress raisers such as a small fatigue crack, as often happens to chains with hardnesses of 375 HB and higher. Fatigue cracks in chains are usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracks Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points Reaction scales or internal precipitation Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors Load exceeded the strength of the part Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... embrittlement resulting from a relatively high strain rate event and/or significant stress concentration. A relatively sharp corner formed by a retaining tab on the older design was shown to be a primary cause of the failures. Design Injection moldings Latches Stress concentration Polyacetal Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., at two points, stretches to the surface at the bottom of the thread ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Screw fracture. The dark surface of the fracture at the thread bottom was formed because of stress corrosion. The central bright part was formed by momentary ductile fracture. SEM, 10× Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of Uri Geller in the early 1970's. Some documented work on the effect of metal and fracture was subsequently published in the Geller Papers [ 1 ]. The scientific evidence put forth in the form of light optical and electron micrographs were totally inconclusive, with wrong interpretations and poor quality...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... This was indicated by the lack of stress whitening and permanent deformation. Limited ductility, in the form of stretching, was found exclusively within the final fracture zones. On cutting the vessel, significant stress relief, in the form of distortion, was evident. This indicated a high level of molded-in stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... , pp. 1091 – 1098 . 5. Blake A. , “Threaded Fasteners - Materials and Design” , Marcel Dekker Inc. , 1986 . 6. Brown B.F. , “Stress Corrosion Cracking Control Measures” , NBS Monograph 156 , 1977 . Selected Reference Selected Reference • Forms of Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Macro Ductile Tensile Fractures Macro ductile tensile fractures exhibit necking—simultaneous diminishing of the diameter and lengthwise stretching—before the final break ( Fig. 4 ). This is often accompanied by “orange peel,” in which each grain deforms in a slightly different manner. Orange peel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... deformation and tonguelike overlaps. The material has become so hot as a result of deformation that martensite has formed as it cooled rapidly. The same phenomena were observed on the second, wire. In this case there was a clear association between the fracture and a transverse crack in the martensitic outer...