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stress-strain curves

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Critical crack depth vs. applied stress for WF14 × 730 H-section, a/c = 0.5, δ m = 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) Fig. 6 Engineering stress-strain curve for HSLA 60 (API 2Y grade 60T) plate steel. σ y , yield strength; σ u , tensile strength Fig. 7 Level 2b and 2c failure assessment diagram...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the required value of ca. 160 kgf/mm 2 . The damaged section thus had a tensile strength from 26%ndash;50% lower than that of the undamaged section. Figure 3 shows the stress-strain curve for a sound wire and Fig. 4 that for a damaged wire. Fig. 3 Stress-strain curve of the undamaged wire, σ B...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... regime, like in secondary creep (which is an indication of superplasticity) [ 17 ]. Fig. 3 True stressstrain curves at different temperatures and 5 mm/ min crosshead speed ( L 0 = 57 mm) Once 800 °C was determined as a temperature at which the material may present superplastic behavior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the heat cycle, thus preventing contraction and expansion, then the resulting stress/strain relationship is as shown in Figure 2 . During initial heating, the curve OA is followed, and since point A lies beyond the strictly elastic portion of the curve, permanent deformation will occur. Point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Stress-strain curves at 850 °C (1560 °F) for the curved and straight tensile specimens. Results of tensile testing Table 1 Results of tensile testing Incoloy 800H pigtail specimen 0.2% offset yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Uniform elongation, % Total elongation, % MPa ksi...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and spring back will occur ( Fig. 14 ). Fig. 14 Stress-strain curve for ductile material There is no theoretical model available to accurately predict spring back. It generally depends on the amount of reduction, strain hardening exponent of the material, geometry of the roller, feed, and so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 849 203 van der Waals Ar 7.8 1.8 Cl 2 31 7.4 Hydrogen NH 3 35 8.4 H 2 O 51 12.2 Source: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. 1 Typical stress-strain curve for a fiber, a plastic, and an elastomer Fig. 2 Typical creep and creep rupture behavior of ductile polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... References 1. Engineering Properties of Steel , ASM International ( 1986 ). 2. Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves , ASM International ( 2002 ). 3. Boresi A.P. , Schmidt R.J. : Advanced Mechanics of Materials , pp. 200 – 254 . Wiley , New York, NY ( 2002 ). 4. Lubiner J...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., an application-life diagram can be constructed as shown in Fig. 6 . The service condition considered is stress, and the characteristic that is varied is the radius of the cold-formed bend. Upon examination of the relationship between the characteristic curves and the intended service life, the components having...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Ref 11 ). It will be appreciated that erosion behavior is not simply related to any monotonic property such as true fracture stress or ultimate tensile stress, because the monotonic stress-strain curve does not describe the cyclic behavior of metals and alloys. Fig. 13 Relative erosion rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... based on maximum strain). Additionally, some criteria take into account polar behavior (unequal tensile and compressive failure stresses), anisotropic behavior, and nonconstancy of volume during deformation. The historically early models (Rankine, Tresca, von Mises, and octahedral shear) were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cause failure by yield. An octahedral shear stress criterion provides a mathematically identical expression to the von Mises criterion. Several other criteria have been proposed (e.g., one based on maximum strain). Additionally, some criteria take into account polar behavior (unequal tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... measurement. Toughness is defined as the ability of a material to absorb energy. It is usually characterized by the area under a stress-strain curve for a smooth (unnotched) tension specimen loaded slowly and under controlled conditions to fracture. Notch toughness represents the ability of a material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This calculation is not done here because the complexity of the stressstrain curve and the geometry make it impractical. Instead, two analyses are performed which establish the upper and lower bounds of the failure stress under a given load. The calculations in this section were performed to determine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... m ) Safe-life, finite-life Local strain concept Low-cycle fatigue curve, ε a = f ( N i ) Cyclic stress-strain (σ a -ε a ) curve Damage tolerance Fracture mechanics concept Threshold value, Δ K th Crack growth diagram, da / dN = f (Δ K , R ) Fracture toughness, K Ic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Relief of Residual Stresses If a part has locked-in residual stresses, these stresses can be relieved by heating the part until the locked-in stresses exceed the strength of the material. A typical stress-strain curve obtained from a tension test is shown in Fig. 19 ( Ref 15 ). Initial changes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B). (b) Relationship of strain rate, or creep rate, and time during a constant-load creep test. The minimum creep rate is attained during second-stage creep Fig. 1 Creep damage (bowing) of a cobalt-base alloy turbine vane...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failures. Stress coating can be used effectively for locating small areas of high strains, determining the directions of the principal strains, and measuring the approximate magnitude of tensile and compressive strains. Gages can then be placed at the high-strain areas and in the principal-strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 17 Isothermal diagram showing the sequence of carbide formation on tempering of normalized 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 3 Stages of creep deformation. (a) Strain curve for the three stages of creep under constant-load testing (curve A) and constant-stress testing (curve B...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... extrusion of Al-6063 billet material. They were examined to identify critical fatigue failure locations, determine corresponding stresses and strains, and uncover correlations with process parameters, design features, and life cycle data. The fatigue damage models are based on Morrow’s stress and strain...