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stress ratio

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...-to-sulfur ratio and be in a normalized condition, low-hydrogen electrodes and welding practices should be used, all corners should be generously radiused, the welds should be inspected and ground or dressed to minimize stress concentrations, postweld heating is advisable, and radiographic and penetrant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the service loads after the failure of the other tie connection. It is important to remark that this analysis technique does not take into account the localized stress at the RHS, because of the welded connection. Fig. 5 Ratios of maximum load to structural resistance are displayed in the gray boxes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Schematic showing test parameters for cyclic-stress testing The stress ratio is the algebraic ratio of two specified stress values in a stress cycle. Two commonly used stress ratios are: the ratio, A , of the alternating stress amplitude to the mean stress ( A = S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in the lateral direction before contacting the shell. The addition of this lateral motion superimposes an additional shear stress on the spring as the compressor rotates in the shell. 7 The stiffness along the axis of the spring is given by Eq 1 . The ratio of the lateral stiffness to the axial stiffness has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The compressive residual stress is subtracted from both the maximum stress and the minimum stress. A new R -ratio is determined, and a new Δ K stress-intensity factor is defined. The crack growth rate is then determined from this Δ K stress-intensity factor and the crack growth determined. After the crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ) values of steels show that, for stress ratios smaller than 0.1, Δ K th is a constant equal to 6 MP m (5.5 ksi in. ). If Δ K I > Δ K th , an existing crack will propagate under the stress-intensity factor fluctuation, Δ K I . For the geometry and the loading in question...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on Y. Same fatigue stress ratio, R = S min /S max . Because the failures did not initiate at the same position, this assumption could well be incorrect. But, as is argued later, any discrepancy is likely to be of minor importance. With these assumptions it may be written: (Eq 3) ( Δ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the mean stress is S m = − S a . The stress ratio is the algebraic ratio of two specified stress values in a stress cycle. Two commonly used stress ratios are the ratio, A , of the alternating stress amplitude to the mean stress ( A = S a / S m ) and (preferably) the ratio, R , of the minimum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... THIS VOLUME is organized according to four general categories of failure: fracture, corrosion, wear, and the subject of this article, distortion. One reason metals are so widely used as engineering materials is that they have high strength but also generally have the capability to respond to load (stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the loading point was measured. Maximum fiber stresses were calculated from the applied load and original specimen dimensions. Fig. 4 Relation of distortion ratio to stress ratio for two steel cantilever beams of rectangular cross section. Distortion ratio is permanent deflection, measured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ( Ref 2 ): (Eq 1) S = 9.4 ( 1 − ν 2 ) ( Δ K / E ) 2 where S is striation spacing, and ν is Poisson's ratio Δ K is stress-intensity factor range, and E is Young's modulus. The stress amplitude applied to the bolts was estimated using Eq 1 and 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... striations were measured and counted; Fig. 8 shows an example of the striations. Using the ASME reference data for fatigue crack growth for ferritic steels in air ( 1 ), a stress intensity factor, K , for an edge crack in a plate, and taking the stress ratio R = 0.9, the stress range in the nut...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Calculation values of torsion stress The length of bar between clamp, L f , mm 692 Torsion diameter, d , mm 19 Max. torsion angle, φ (rad) 0.61 (From the weaving machine catalogue, 35°) Shear modulus, G , MPa 80000 Fatigue strength, τ tf , MPa 570 a (For repeated stress ratio...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Schematic of debonding at a matrix-particle interface with unidirectional stress. (a) Plane stress loading of an inclusion (no interfacial bond) causes debonding at the particle caps. (b) Debonding and fracture of high-aspect-ratio particles (elongated inclusion) due to shear transfer. Fracture is indicated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the particle ( Fig. 9b ). Fig. 9 Schematic of debonding at a matrix-particle interface with unidirectional stress. (a) Plane-stress loading of an inclusion (no interfacial bond) causes debonding at the particle caps. (b) Debonding and fracture of high-aspect-ratio particles (elongated inclusion) due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is the change in stress intensity associated with that cycle of stress, R is the stress ratio, K Ic is the plane-strain fracture toughness (28.6 MPa m , or 26 ksi in. ), and C and m are constants that can be determined from the da/dn versus Δ K data for the material. The results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... wire fracture surfaces were examined after torsional and fatigue loading to failure. Fatigue testing was conducted in rotating bending with a stress ratio (minimum stress divided by maximum stress) equal to −1. As-drawn NiTi wire was also cathodically charged at −1 V with respect to a graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 0 0 0 σ h 0 0 0 σ h ] Even if Poisson’s ratio is unequal to 0.5, a hydrostatic stress whose magnitude is: σ h   = ( 1   +   ν ) (   σ x   +   σ y )   3 still exists. The effect of the hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... = K I K mat and the collapse ratio S r is: (Eq 3) S r = σ σ c In Eq 2 , K I is the stress-intensity factor (a function of nominal stress σ, crack size a, and geometry) at fracture of the component, and K mat is the linear elastic fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a corrosive environment (stress-corrosion fatigue), and elastic buckling. Elastic buckling may cause parts to contact, causing seizure of a rotating system, but it may also lead to plastic buckling and ultimately to fracture. The purpose of this article is to introduce the subject of fractography...