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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Incoloy 825 96.0 49.0 45 Stress rupture time estimates Table 6 Stress rupture time estimates Condition Temp (°F) Internal stress Wall stress Predicted failure time (h) Possible exposure time (h) MPa psig MPa ksi Condition 1 1,200 6.2 900 88 12.78 60 4.5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking failure occurred in four AISI 4137 chromium molybdenum steel bolts having a hardness of 42 HRC. The normal service temperature (400 deg C, or 750 deg F) was too high for hydrogen embrittlement but, the bolts were subjected also to extended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... records that the ring had been removed for hydrotest and welded without any postweld heat treatment. The final cause of failure was concluded to be cracking that developed during the installation of the new shroud ring. Stress-relief heat treatments were recommended to be performed to reduce residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The cracks, which tended to follow the prequench austenite grain boundaries, Fig. 4 , were typical of stress corrosion in this type of material and the cracks contained corrosion products. There was evidence of associated surface corrosion pits, Fig. 5 — another relevant feature of this type of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the positions at which the values are measured Abstract A deformed steel tube was received for failure analysis after buckling during a heat-treat operation. The tube was subjected to various metallurgical tests as well as nondestructive testing to confirm the presence of residual stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the dished end that had been kept in storage. Solution annealing was recommended to relieve residual stress, thereby reducing the probability of failure. It was also recommended that the carbon content of the steel be lowered, i.e., that a 316L grade be used. Selected References Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the failure was caused by a combination of hydrogen-induced corrosion cracking and sulfide stress-corrosion cracking. Based on test data and cost, A217-WC9 cast Cr–Mo steel would be a better alloy for the application. References References 1. Carneiro R.A. , Ratnapuli R.C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that is less susceptible to intergranular carbide precipitation. Aircraft components Carbide precipitation Clamps Sensitization 19-9 DL UNS S63198 Stress-corrosion cracking The clamp shown in Fig. 1(a) was used for securing the hot air ducting system on fighter aircraft. The strap was 0.8 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cold-worked condition, it was not possible to determine with certainty if the cracks were of the inter- or trans-granular type. It was concluded that failure was due to stress-corrosion cracking in a chloride environment. Failure of the wires was likely due to the use of a chloride-containing flux...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... this fracture-initiation area showed fatigue striations. No casting or metallurgical structural defects were found that could explain the failures. This evidence supports the conclusion that cracking was a result of the stress-concentration site at the bolt holes where a fatigue-initiated fracture occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... inspection, 0.7x/50x images, hardness testing, reheat treatment, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that failure was by progressive SCC that originated at a stress concentration. Also, the solution heat treatment had been either omitted or performed at too high of a temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... a woody appearing topography ( Fig. 1b ). Further electron optical examination of the fracture at 800 and 2000× ( Fig. 1c and d ) showed that the cracking pattern initiated and progressed by an intergranular failure mechanism. This fracture topography indicated that cracking was due to stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...) that was the source of each crack. The fracture of the oil quenched and tempered (HRC 50 ASTM A229) spring was by stress-corrosion cracking after the crane fell into the sea because fatigue cannot account for the fractures observed. The crane failure was caused by an overload created by the operator catching a free...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 Delayed-failure curve (time-to-failure versus applied stress as a percentage of the yield stress) for aluminium-alloy weld (5083) specimens exposed to liquid mercury at 20 °C. Note that failure can be almost immediate (see arrows) or ~100 h for the same stress level [ 11 ] More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 12 Comparison of a laboratory H 2 S stress-corrosion failure (left) with a broken bolt removed from an engine (right). Test conditions were high clamping load and moist H 2 S-containing atmosphere. Similarity of fracture surfaces is evident. Arrows indicate origin regions. 1.0× More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 Schematic diagram showing stress as a function of cycles to failure used to describe the linear damage theory More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stress-corrosion failure of an Apollo Ti-6Al-4V reaction control system (RCS) pressure vessel due to nitrogen tetroxide. (a) Failed vessel after exposure to pressurized N 2 O 4 for 34 h. (b) Cross section through typical stress-corrosion cracks. 250× More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the applied aspects of creep and stress-rupture failures. It discusses the microstructural changes and bulk mechanical behavior of classical and nonclassical creep behavior. The article provides a description of microstructural changes and damage from creep...