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stray-current corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the pipe was buried in noncorrosive sandy soil, it was found to incur stray currents at 2 Vdc in relation to a Cu/CuSO4 half cell. Recommendations included eliminating, moving, or shielding the source of stray current. Pipe couplings Stray current corrosion Water treatment systems Copper pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., for example, pH; resistivity; redox potential; and moisture, sulfides, sulfates, and chlorides content. Stray direct currents (DC) or induced alternating current (AC) sources can accelerate soil corrosion. Background of the Failure The bottom plates of the potable water tank failed after approximately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... months of start-up, leaks were discovered. On-Site Examination A series of tests were performed on site to eliminate stray currents as a possible cause of failure in the piping system. The piping system was inspected for possible sources of ac or dc current flow. An external battery was used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... liquids, and stray electric currents. Most common modes of failure include flaking or pitting (fatigue), cracks or fractures, creep, smearing, wear, softening, indentation, fluting, and corrosion. The modes of failure are illustrated with examples from practice. Roller bearings Rolling-bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is aggressive, corrosion-control methods need to be developed and initiated. To evaluate corrosion-exposure conditions for metallic piping networks, field conditions such as soil type, soil pH, stray current effects, and electrical continuity require quantification by field investigation. Based...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the specific conditions of environmental or electrochemical attack. For example, uniform thinning can be attributed to various conditions such as: Atmospheric corrosion Aqueous corrosion Galvanic corrosion Stray-current corrosion (which is similar to galvanic corrosion, but does not rely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be classified further according to the specific conditions of environmental or electrochemical attack. For example, uniform thinning can be attributed to various conditions, such as: Atmospheric corrosion Aqueous corrosion Galvanic corrosion Stray-current corrosion (which is similar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of debris Potential sources of electrical current passing through the bearing Potential sources of water and other corrosive fluids Load spectrum and sources of potential-unknown loads Misalignment of deflections that influence load distribution within the bearing system Not all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Operating history Past issues or leaks Any repair/remediation Any previous related investigations Also to be considered are potential factors that act external to the pipeline, such as soil type and movement, stray current from other buried structures and high-tension power lines, third-party...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., on a preliminary basis, between related materials in terms of their resistance to the action of a high-voltage, low-current arc near the insulation surface. Due to localized thermal and chemical decomposition and corrosion, the arcing will continue to form a conducting path or to allow the material to become...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... bearings are also explained. Finally, the article discusses in detail the characteristics and prevention of the various types of failures of REBs: wear, fretting, corrosion, plastic flow, rolling-contact fatigue, and damage. The article includes an Appendix, which lists REB-related abbreviations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... components. Corrosion General corrosion resulting in uniform wall thinning causes considerable damage to heat-exchanger tubes. However, the principal corrosion damage in heat exchangers is usually from localized attack. Stray electrical currents may also contribute to significant corrosion of heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the wall thickness to minimize the potential of a failure. However, the principal corrosion damage in heat exchangers is usually from localized attack. Stray electrical currents may also contribute to significant corrosion of heat exchangers. Localized corrosive attack can occur as pitting, impingement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... or multiple interactions among several factors. The important factors that contribute to premature service failure include improper fitting, inadequate lubrication, overloading, vibration, impact loading, debris ingress, contamination, high operating temperatures, and stray electrical fields. Bearings subject...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pressures of the gases within the duct, combined with the high temperatures, facilitated nitrogen pickup. No recommendations were made. Intergranular precipitation Oxidation Spalling Inconel 317 UNS N06617 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation The presence of carbides and carbonitrides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of cast iron pipe. Chemical analyses of the porous region had a substantial increase in carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur. The porous appearance and the composition of the soft porous residue confirmed graphitic corrosion. The selective leaching of iron leaves a residue rich in carbon, silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the backfill revealed the site of failure. Analysis (visual inspection, electrical conductivity, and soil analysis) supported the conclusions that the failure had resulted from galvanic corrosion at a point where the corrosivity of the soil was substantially greater than the average, resulting in a voltage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... excessive oxidation and corrosion of high-strength nickeland cobalt-base superalloys being used for turbine blades and vanes [ 1 , 2 ]. The first-stage vanes are subjected to the highest gas velocity and temperature in the engine. Since the gas entering the first-stage vane can be above the melting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of corrosion. Meanwhile, some black-colored substances adhering to the contact surface too are observed, Fig. 5d . According to the EDS results ( Fig. 5f ), besides the elements of the matrix material, molybdenum, Mo, and sulfur, S, are also present. In other words, such substances were the residua...