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strain-hardening exponent

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that can cause specimen-scale shear banding is the combination of minimum strain hardening and negative strain rate hardening. A second case in which the central fibrous zone is (apparently) absent has been reported in an HY-100 steel. Both cases are discussed in this article. When edge- or center...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... set of circumstances that can cause specimen-scale shear banding is the combination of minimum strain hardening and negative strain-rate hardening. A second case in which the central fibrous zone is (apparently) absent has been reported in an HY-100 steel. Both cases are discussed in this article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... HRC, but, in the case where the tool can be used to strike another steel tool, such as a wedge, the lower limit is reduced to about 45 HRC. At this hardness, that is, 45 HRC, the strain-hardening exponent is greater, the deformation more wide spread, and thus the tool tends to mushroom, thereby...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and spring back will occur ( Fig. 14 ). Fig. 14 Stress-strain curve for ductile material There is no theoretical model available to accurately predict spring back. It generally depends on the amount of reduction, strain hardening exponent of the material, geometry of the roller, feed, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Material removal rates correlate best with the product ( σ f ′ n ′ ), in which n ′, the cyclic strain-hardening exponent, reflects cyclic strain resistance. Figure 12 illustrates the correlation with cavitation-erosion rates in vibratory tests performed in conformance with ASTM G 32...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as: (Eq 7) N i = C 2 ( ν 1 + ν t h ) exp Q R T ⋅ Δ ε p − 8 n ′ where all terms have been previously defined and where t h is the hold period and n ′ is the cyclic strain hardening exponent. Note that the expression is given in terms of plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 3 Fig. 5 Single-crystal nickel-base superalloy specimens tested at a mechanical strain of 1.3%, a minimum temperature of 550 °C (1020 °F), a maximum temperature of 1050 °C (1920 °F), and 300 s cycles but having different thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) waveforms. (a) Out-of-phase TMF...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... values are attained at 56 RC hardness at selected temperatures. Considering the fact that the plastic strain values are ignored and only elastic analysis is to be carried out for dies, the fatigue ductility coefficient, ε f ′ , and fatigue ductility exponent, c , are not required. The same...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hardening exponents ( n ) for most structural alloys are typically in the range of 0.05 to 0.2, which translates to a RA in the range of 5 to 22% before necking instability is attained. Thus, few materials that are not cold worked would neck before 2% strain and would be considered brittle in this criterion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... levels of strain, while they crack from the onset of deformation when loaded in the transverse direction [ 4 ]. Early work on the effects of sulfides in bearing steels found that they are neutral or even advantageous in rolling contact fatigue situations [ 11 , 13 ]. MnS inclusions were originally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of fine equiaxed grains [ 4 ], m coefficient (strain rate sensitivity exponent; σ = K ɛ̇ m ) values between 0.3 and 0.7, slow strain rates (10 −3 –10 −5 s −1 ), and grain boundaries of the material that allow grain sliding and rotation when stress is applied [ 5 ]. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with crack propagation direction in monotonic loading, the Paris law exponent also depends on crack propagation direction. K c , plane-stress fracture toughness; K Ic , plane-strain fracture toughness Fig. 44 Effect of stress-intensity range (Δ K ) on fatigue fracture mechanisms. (a) Alpha-beta...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... close to 70%, K of 449 MPa, and a hardening exponent n of 0.088. No directional dependency was observed. Fig. 3 Specimen geometry for monotonic and cyclic tests (all dimensions in mm) Fig. 4 Three different tensile test results Fig. 5 Stress-plastic strain log scale plot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... length of the tube. The fishmouth opening exposes the thick-edge fracture surfaces. Creep is time-dependent strain, which can cause failures when a component operating at high temperatures under steady load is so deformed or distorted that it can no longer perform its intended function. Creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... region often takes a nonlinear form, often parabolic in shape (i.e., y = ax n ), expressed as σ = K ε n , where K is the constant strength coefficient, and n is the constant strain-hardening exponent. It is important to note that this equation is of fundamental importance in discussion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The relationship between stress and strain in the plasticity region often takes a nonlinear form, often parabolic in shape (i.e., y = ax n ), expressed as: σ = κε n , where K is the constant strength coefficient and n is the constant strain hardening exponent. It is important to note that this equation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failures. Stress coating can be used effectively for locating small areas of high strains, determining the directions of the principal strains, and measuring the approximate magnitude of tensile and compressive strains. Gages can then be placed at the high-strain areas and in the principal-strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to a new oxidative process. In specific operating conditions, tribo-oxidative wear can be also attained at much lower contact temperatures. It may happen when the wear debris, initially formed by adhesive wear, remains trapped between the mating surfaces. The debris is then strain hardened, comminuted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Coat. Technol. , Vol 201 , 2006 , p 4323 – 4328 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.08.094 96. Kayaba T. and Iwabuchi A. , Effect of the Hardness of Hardened Steels and the Action of Oxides on Fretting Wear , Wear , Vol 66 , 1981 , p 27 – 41 10.1016/0043-1648(81)90030-2 97...