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strain-hardening exponent

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... domain due to the time and cost involved in their generation. There is one exception: Keeler and Brazier ( Ref 12 ) discovered that the FLC for low-carbon sheet steels can be estimated by an equation related only to the sheet thickness and strain-hardening exponent ( n -value). The lowest point...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... megagram MIC microbiologically influenced corrosion MPa megapascal mph miles per hour MS mass spectroscopy MSD multiple-site damage MSDS materials safety data sheet MVC microvoid coalescence n strain-hardening exponent n curve-fitting parameter n cyclic strain hardening exponent nm nanometer N fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that can cause specimen-scale shear banding is the combination of minimum strain hardening and negative strain rate hardening. A second case in which the central fibrous zone is (apparently) absent has been reported in an HY-100 steel. Both cases are discussed in this article. When edge- or center...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that can cause specimen-scale shear banding is the combination of minimum strain hardening and negative strain-rate hardening. A second case in which the central fibrous zone is (apparently) absent has been reported in an HY-100 steel. Both cases are discussed in this article. When edge- or center...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... At this hardness, that is, 45 HRC, the strain-hardening exponent is greater, the deformation more wide spread, and thus the tool tends to mushroom, thereby providing the user of the tool with a warning that spalling may be imminent. Striking/struck tool specifications Table 1 Striking/struck tool...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... temperatures. Considering the fact that the plastic strain values are ignored and only elastic analysis is to be carried out for dies, the fatigue ductility coefficient, ε f ′ , and fatigue ductility exponent, c , are not required. The same is also assumed by Falk et al. [ 5 ] in their work...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the fatigue strength coefficient, σ f ′ , which is a measure of cyclic stress resistance. Material removal rates correlate best with the product ( σ f ′ n ′ ), in which n ′, the cyclic strain-hardening exponent, reflects cyclic strain resistance. Figure 12 illustrates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... recovery will take place and spring back will occur ( Fig. 14 ). Fig. 14 Stress-strain curve for ductile material There is no theoretical model available to accurately predict spring back. It generally depends on the amount of reduction, strain hardening exponent of the material, geometry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... multiaxial cyclic loading often produces additional strain hardening, which is not usually observed under proportional loading conditions. The reason for the additional hardening is the interaction of slip planes, because many more slip planes are active during nonproportional loading due to the change...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... p − 8 n ′ where all terms have been previously defined and where t h is the hold period and n ′ is the cyclic strain hardening exponent. Note that the expression is given in terms of plastic strain range. Systems to which this model would be likely to apply would be those...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hardening exponents ( n ) for most structural alloys are typically in the range of 0.05 to 0.2, which translates to a RA in the range of 5 to 22% before necking instability is attained. Thus, few materials that are not cold worked would neck before 2% strain and would be considered brittle in this criterion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) N i = C 2 ( υ 1 + ν t h ) e ( Q RT ) Δ ε p − 8 n ′ where C 2 is a material- and temperature-dependent constant, υ is the frequency, Δε p is the plastic strain range, t h is the hold period, n ′ is the cyclic strain-hardening exponent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ], m coefficient (strain rate sensitivity exponent; σ = K ɛ̇ m ) values between 0.3 and 0.7, slow strain rates (10 −3 –10 −5 s −1 ), and grain boundaries of the material that allow grain sliding and rotation when stress is applied [ 5 ]. In addition to the previous requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compressive hydrostatic component relative to the deviatoric component of stress and decreases with an increase in the tensile-hydrostatic stress component. It is also possible for ductile fracture to require little energy for initiation or propagation if strain-hardening capacity is low. From...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... or no effect on yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent, and work hardening rate in the longitudinal direction, which makes it advantageous for simple loading applications [ 8 , 9 ]. Sulfide content is known to decrease transverse ductility (especially when reported as reduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... close to 70%, K of 449 MPa, and a hardening exponent n of 0.088. No directional dependency was observed. Fig. 3 Specimen geometry for monotonic and cyclic tests (all dimensions in mm) Fig. 4 Three different tensile test results Fig. 5 Stress-plastic strain log scale plot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be adapted for polymers in which the ligament yielding is accompanied with work (stress or strain) hardening ( Ref 34 ). In this case, the crack does not grow from the notch. Instead, the crack “deflects” along the loading direction without advancing. Therefore, the EWF method cannot be adapted universally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.../sec Displacement, angular displacement Shear strain γ … Force, torque Shear stress σ N/m 2 (Pa) Ratio Symbol Units Viscosity = stress/shear rate η Pa-sec Modulus(t) = stress(t)/strain G Pa Compliance(t) = strain(t)/stress J 1/Pa When rheological data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... region often takes a nonlinear form, often parabolic in shape (i.e., y = ax n ), expressed as σ = K ε n , where K is the constant strength coefficient, and n is the constant strain-hardening exponent. It is important to note that this equation is of fundamental importance in discussion...