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strain-control testing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by the actual failed kingpins (compare Fig. 9 with Fig. 3 ). Fig. 9 SEM micrograph of the fracture surface of a specimen tested about 10 °C (18 °F) below the incipient melting temperature, at a strain rate of about 500%/s. This view shows large intergranular facets similar to those seen in Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... orientation Surface condition Stress concentration Environment (temperature, corrosion) Type of loading (axial, bending, torsion) Test-controlling parameter (load, displacement, strain) Frequency and waveform Mean stress ( R -ratio) Type of stress for evaluation (nominal or local...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because plastic strain is a required condition for fatigue, strain-controlled testing offers advantages in the characterization of fatigue crack initiation (before subsequent crack growth and final failure). The S - N method is based on just one failure criterion: the total separation of the test coupon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (average) (high/room temperature) 0.84 0.85 0.64 1.15 2.54 Fully reversed cyclic tests were performed in strain control mode at 1–20 Hz. A total of 20 specimens were tested at eight strain amplitudes ranging from 0.09 to 0.25%. In all cases, the hysteresis stabilized after few first cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of creep rate or rupture data. One class of extrapolation techniques that have withstood the test of time involves the use of various parameters that combine the rupture time or strain rate with time. While a multitude of such techniques have been proposed, the ones that have gained prominence include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ¼ at the highest stresses to 1900 at the lowest. When an aluminum alloy was tested in the same manner, buckling did not occur in a range of stresses below the 0.2% offset yield strength. Aluminum alloys are among those that do not exhibit cyclic strain softening. The general process of materials failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Stress ratio is maximum stress, calculated from applied load and original beam dimensions, divided by yield strength. This type of test provides a simplistic but useful concept of distortion by showing how much distortion occurs at strains beyond the yield point. As shown in Fig. 4 , the beam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... At high temperatures, however, especially when there is a hold at the maximum strain, there is a continual coarsening that occurs, Fig. 5 , and the stress decreases continually. Fig. 5 Precipitate structure of René 80 cycled in strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue at 1254 K. Note the “globular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Mechanical Engineering , The University of Alabama , Tuscaloosa, AL , 2019 5. “ Standard Practice for Strain Controlled Thermomechanical Fatigue Testing ,” E 2368-10(2017), ASTM International , West Conshohocken, PA , 2010 6. Amaro R.L. , Antolovich S.D. , Neu R.W...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in other areas where the reaction strains may also have been high. Remedial action to insure a long-term solution to this problem included cleaning the ash out of the water seal and correcting problems with the water level control. The size of the overflow and emergency overflow openings were enlarged...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... [ 12 ], the mechanical behavior of the steel must show a strain hardening coefficient n (as measured by a tension test with the ASTM standard) higher than 0.1 in its hot rolling raw state. If this is achieved, the steel can be used for cold work operations such as bending, stretching, and drawing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... conditions of bolt material tested; the values are reported in Table 1 . Also compared in this table are the ASTM material specification values for grade 5 steel bolt materials [ 1 ]. It can be seen that the tested bolt material comfortably exceeds the specified minimum values except for fracture strain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 25 ) is usually applied. In the case of four-point bend testing, a strain gage is attached to the opposite side and/or near the measurement location on the specimen. The applied strains are recorded via a strain gage, and the stresses are measured by XRD at different load increments. The maximum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... , a simple and inexpensive destructive test was used. Figure 11 illustrates the procedure for preparing the slice bend test. This form of the test ensures that reasonably uniform strain is applied across the whole sample width i.e. the test-plate thickness and both the mid-thickness and near surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in tensile testing of the order of 10 −3 to 10 −2 per minute do not typically cause deformation twinning at room temperature, but a hammer blow will cause twinning.) When deformation twinning does occur during plastic straining, it is usually activated after prior deformation by slip (but see subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a hcp structure, just as there are differences in the stress necessary to cause cleavage. Deformation twinning does occur in materials having a bcc lattice, with twinning more likely at low temperature and elevated strain rates. (Strain rates commonly encountered in tensile testing of the order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The predominant driving force in fatigue (elastic or plastic) is thus determined by the in-service strain/stress range. In the case of short fatigue lives, plastic strain is more dominant than elastic strain, so low-cycle fatigue (LCF) life is controlled by the ductility of the material. At longer fatigue lives...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... boundaries or second phases. With time and stress, these holes or cavities can link up and form cracks, by both void growth (diffusion controlled) and by shear strain on the grain boundary, that eventually lead to failure of the component. The damage is progressive and may occur in bulk or, more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., nickel, copper, and chromium indicated no abnormality. The steel was not required to be fine grained; in addition, the soluble aluminum content responsible for controlling grain size and reducing susceptibility to strain aging varied among the plates, but was very low for three of the plates (<0.005...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of cladded sample Nos. 1 and 2. Comparison of these images suggests the uniform elongation of grains near the interface as main microstructural characteristic in steel side of cladded sample Nos. 1 and 2. In another word, up to impact energy of 102 kJ, a homogenous plastic strain mechanism controls...