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strain measurement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to quantitatively compare the strain magnitude in different areas. The forming limit curve is needed to assess if the measured strains exceed the capability of a given sheet metal. Forming Limit Curve A tensile test determines the forming capability of a flat sample deformed in the plane of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... relief, induction hardening, service temperature, thermal strains, etc.) X-Ray Diffraction Theory and Residual Stress Measurement The XRD technique uses the distance between crystallographic planes, that is, d -spacing, as a strain gage. This method can only be applied to crystalline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the slewing ring, -element close-strain gages were glued onto bolts at diametrically opposite locations ( Fig. 11 ). The bolts with strain gages on them were attached to a slewing ring of the same type of truck crane as the failed one. Before measurement, the initial tightening force was adjusted to 470 ± 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strains, etc.) X-Ray Diffraction Theory and Residual-Stress Measurement The XRD technique uses the distance between crystallographic planes, that is, d -spacing, as a strain gage. This method can only be applied to crystalline, polycrystalline, and semicrystalline materials ( Ref 1 , 27...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... normally or nearly so to the main hoop stress direction. Residual-stress measurements were made using a hole-drilling technique and strain gage rosettes. Large tensile axial residual stresses were measured at nearly every location investigated with a large residual hoop stress was found for locations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... strain gauges) and the characterization of proper rate-dependent values for the elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics J-Integral Testing The J -integral is a measure of the amount of energy absorbed (due to both elastic and plastic responses) during the growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Predicted temperature using oxide depth measurements at 60% airfoil height Fig. 4 Predicted temperature using oxide depth measurements at 90% airfoil height Stress and Strain Analysis An approximate elastic stress analysis was conducted to determine the nominal elastic stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the dynamic mechanical properties of plastics in tension D5045 572 Plane-strain fracture toughness and strain energy-release rate of plastic materials D5083 3268 Tensile properties of reinforced thermosetting plastics using straight-sided specimens D5279 6721 Measuring the dynamic mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to analysis of the crack, some of the irradiated material from the window was used to measure mechanical properties. Hot cell techniques for preparation of samples and testing were developed to determine true operating conditions of radiation, strain, and temperature. Mechanical tests Neutrons Protons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mode with cleavage and ductile, dimpled shear. Hardness values as high as 35 HRC were measured in the bend area. The as-galvanized bolts fractured in a brittle manner. Failure was attributed to improper bending of the bolts, which provided a severely cold-worked bend area susceptible to strain-age...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... large strains (40 to 300%, depending on the plastic). The unique behavior of plastics in this strain range can have a significant effect on puncture resistance. Although material properties in this range are not as easy to measure or as well understood as elastic modulus and yield strength, some data do...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... not be determined, however, and to investigate possible failure scenarios other tests were conducted, which are outlined below. Fans similar to the one that failed were strain gauged and run at operating speeds of 750 rpm (12.5 Hz) and strains measured and resonances evaluated using a telemetry system and modal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... as a measure of the recoverable resistance of a material to deformation. If the material is in a fluid state, then the simplest relationship between stress and strain is one in which the applied stress is proportional to the rate of strain. In this case, the proportionality factor is referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that can be performed on polymer melts which provide information on the viscoelasticity of polymers: creep/recovery and stress relaxation. In creep/recovery testing, a constant stress is imposed on the specimen, and the strain is measured as a function of time. This has proven to be a useful test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the material. When a strained part is held between two crossed polarizers and viewed in the direction of a light source ( Fig. 6 ), a pattern of fringes can be seen, some of which may be colored, resulting from the birefringence. The object of photoelastic measurements is to measure the direction...
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 7 Immersion of tensile test specimens followed by strain to failure measurement in the same tensile test as in Fig. 6 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 17. Duffy J. , Chi Y.C. : On the measurement of local strain and temperature during the formation of adiabatic shear bands . Mater. Sci. Eng. A 157 , 195 – 210 ( 1992 ) 10.1016/0921-5093(92)90026-W 18. Coleman B.D. , Hodgdon M.L. : On localization of strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... are often formed from layers of unidirectional plies, the direction of the plies being rotated to increase strength. Two types of residual thermal stresses develop: microstresses around each fiber and macrostresses between the plies. One researcher used strain gages to measure directional expansion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in the shroud-support ring attachment weld was measured at about 180° around the vessel from the crack-initiation site, where no cracking of the weld had occurred. Surface stresses were measured using a center-hole rosette strain gage technique, and through-thickness stresses were measured by a block-removal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... loads have been investigated. Test samples have been cut and machined from an electroformed mould. Monotonic properties such as modulus of elasticity, yield and ultimate strengths, percentage elongation, and area reduction have been obtained. Fatigue properties including cyclic curve, strain-life...