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strain hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... be heat treated after swaging to reduce or eliminate strain hardening of the metal. Boiler tubes Cold working (swaging) Strain hardening Sulfur 304 grade TP Metalworking-related failures Stress-corrosion cracking Background Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that can cause specimen-scale shear banding is the combination of minimum strain hardening and negative strain rate hardening. A second case in which the central fibrous zone is (apparently) absent has been reported in an HY-100 steel. Both cases are discussed in this article. When edge- or center...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... set of circumstances that can cause specimen-scale shear banding is the combination of minimum strain hardening and negative strain-rate hardening. A second case in which the central fibrous zone is (apparently) absent has been reported in an HY-100 steel. Both cases are discussed in this article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in which gear teeth deformed because of faulty design and low core hardness. Details A and B show deformed areas on drive-gear teeth and mating internal splines. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 1 Comparison of the conventional stress-strain behavior of a low-carbon steel, a strain-hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Comparison of the conventional stress-strain behavior of a low-carbon steel, a strain-hardening material, and the idealized material assumed in limit analysis. All have the same yield strength. Fig. 2 (a) Buckled flange (lower arrow) of an extruded aluminum section deliberately loaded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... HRC, but, in the case where the tool can be used to strike another steel tool, such as a wedge, the lower limit is reduced to about 45 HRC. At this hardness, that is, 45 HRC, the strain-hardening exponent is greater, the deformation more wide spread, and thus the tool tends to mushroom, thereby...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Examination of the fractured surfaces showed that failure had been preceded by fatigue cracking. The material from which the dish plate was forged was a Ni-Cr-Mo steel in the oil hardened and tempered condition. Fractographic examination of the surface of the cracks showed striation markings indicative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Several compressor disks in military fighter and trainer aircraft gas turbine engines cracked prematurely in the bolt hole regions. The disks were made of precipitation-hardened AM355 martensitic stainless steel. Experimental and analytical work was performed on specimens from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hardening exponents ( n ) for most structural alloys are typically in the range of 0.05 to 0.2, which translates to a RA in the range of 5 to 22% before necking instability is attained. Thus, few materials that are not cold worked would neck before 2% strain and would be considered brittle in this criterion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... forming provide economic drivers, while the ability to achieve high strength finished product from low strength starting material is due to strain hardening. Flow forming is an incremental forming process that uses a 3-D variation of basic rolling processes and combines rolling, shearing, and bending...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Tearing Using a Proposed Strain-Hardening Failure Assessment Diagram , Int. J. Fract. , Vol 16 , 1980 , p R73 – R77 17. “Standard Test Method for Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Fracture Toughness Assessment,” E 1290 , Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM , 2001 18. “Fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... J.I. : Ultrafine grained steels and the n coefficient of strain hardening . Mem. Trab. Difus. Cient. Tec. 9 , 45 – 54 ( 2011 ) 13. Morrison W.B. : Superplasticity of low-alloy steels . Trans. ASM 61 , 423 – 434 ( 1968 ) 14. Reed-Hill R.E. : Creep . In: Physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compressive hydrostatic component relative to the deviatoric component of stress and decreases with an increase in the tensile-hydrostatic stress component. It is also possible for ductile fracture to require little energy for initiation or propagation if strain-hardening capacity is low. From...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
....) The operational stresses (about 400 MPa) alone should not have caused the failure because the tensile strength of the propeller blade material was in excess of 500 MPa. This indicated that there was still a margin for further deformation and strain hardening before intervention of tensile failure due to bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (and fracture), respectively. Figure 6 shows the structure observed approximately 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) from the fracture shown in Fig. 4 . This structure was unaffected by the heat of welding and was generally present in the plate material (strain-hardened austenite). The hardness of this material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Material removal rates correlate best with the product ( σ f ′ n ′ ), in which n ′, the cyclic strain-hardening exponent, reflects cyclic strain resistance. Figure 12 illustrates the correlation with cavitation-erosion rates in vibratory tests performed in conformance with ASTM G 32...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to the circumferential weld. It was, therefore, considered that the sensitisation of the head material was caused by the strain hardening introduced during the cold spinning process, thus contributing to the effect, either by the formation of anodic regions or, by facilitating the formation of chromium carbides. A cold...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as the crack progresses. Cleaved grains often exhibit river patterns, further confirming transgranular cleavage as the mechanism of crack propagation. Cleavage occurs in materials with a high strain-hardening rate and relatively low cleavage strength, or when a geometric constraint (i.e., large hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... occurs in materials with a high strain-hardening rate and relatively low cleavage strength, or when a geometric constraint (i.e., large hydrostatic stresses) functions as an initiator of cleavage fracture. It also occurs in materials that are embrittled within the grains rather than at the grain...