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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract An aluminum alloy propeller blade that had been cold straightened to correct deformation incurred in service fractured soon after being returned to service. Visual examination revealed that crack initiation occurred at the top surface in an area containing numerous surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Spalled fragments from the work rolls of a steel bar straightening machine were received for failure analysis. Visual inspection coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy were used as the principal analytical techniques for the investigation. Fractographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the conclusion that the presence of chromic acid stain on the fracture surface proved that the forging had cracked before anodizing. This suggest that the crack initiated during straightening, either after machining or after heat treatment. The structure and composition of the alloy appear to have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and 10 in. from the tip of the blade. Incorrect dressing and inadequate pre-flight inspection were the two main causes. Two other types of propeller blade fatigue failures resulted mainly from propeller straightening operations, usually performed after previous blade bending damage. To eliminate blade...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... during rotary straightening were observed. A crack that had originated at the surface at the inside bend and had propagated toward the outside of the bend was revealed by microscopy of a longitudinal section taken through bend 2. The small bend radius was interpreted to contribute to spring fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of about 1 m onto the opposite support. The fracture was a grainy forced rupture that propagated from one of the fillet welds. Investigation showed a steel was selected for this important construction that was prone to aging and that in fact had aged through cold deformation during straightening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... corrosion agents, especially chlorides. If chlorides were absent, hydrogen sulfide which causes similar pitting and is capable of causing cracks could be suspected. Favorable state of stresses, which could be residual or due to heat treating, bending or straightening operations, would be recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., ranging from 0.40 to 0.44%. The fracture occurred in the HAZ , where quenching by the surrounding metal had produced a hardness of 55 HRC. Some roadarms of similar carbon content and welded by the same procedure had not failed because they had been tempered during a hot-straightening operation. Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Mechanical stresses were induced by tightening of the clamp around the duct, which in effect acted to straighten the bolt. The action of these stresses on the carbides that precipitated in the grain boundaries resulted in fracture of the bolt. Due to the operating temperatures of the duct near the bolt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and straightened for use. Fractography established that fracture occurred by stress-corrosion cracking. The cracks originated at rusted areas on the cladding that occurred under iron particles left on the surface during manufacture. High hardness values indicated that solution annealing following cold working had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... flat portion of a bracket, bent cold through 90° over 1 4 in. radius and artificially aged by heating at 260°C for three hours. When at attempt was made to straighten the pieces after they were cold, brittle fracture took place after an angular movement of about 5° and the fracture showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of affected area outside the initiation point is somewhat less. Region 1 is a shallow zone (about 0.002 in. at its deepest) of dimpled structure typical of an overload failure. It is believed to have resulted from a straightening crack. Near the lip of the crack, the surface corroded in some areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the accident. The large piece was partly straightened out as shown in Fig. 2 . Original dimensions of the ring were: inner diameter 24 in., thickness about 1 1 4 in., length 1 5 8 in., weight 325 lb. Fig. 1 Cross Section at End of a Rotor Shaft, Showing Function of Retaining Ring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... purpose—it developed the required material properties and acted as a temper-straightening operation. Attempts to eliminate the 315 °C (600 °F) snap temper in favor of a 220 °C (425 °F) temper in the same salt bath used for quenching had been tried unsuccessfully on other parts. Although the 220 °C (425 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the as-quenched parts and the associated excessive work at the straightening stations. At this point, the consultant/analyst asked again whether the parts were being left in the furnace longer than usual. The first answer, from a supervisor, was again, “No.” The next question was, “How long are you leaving...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to hydrogen damage, and 7018 (low-hydrogen rod) should have been used instead. Contributory stresses were also introduced from residual stresses, the straightening operation, and transport. It should be noted, however, that transport was not the primary cause of the cracking, because fatigue damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... It was assumed that the section of the heater shell between the welds attempted to straighten. When this occurred, the root of the weld would have been under tension, which would create an ideal site for a crack to initiate. Cracks 1 and 2 probably originated during hydrostatic tests of the heater or shortly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... corrosion cracking may be caused by cold-working e.g. cold-rolling, straightening, edging, punching, cutting, and stamping. Critical residual stresses can also be induced by machining operations using blunt tools or clamped tools that are too long, together with excessive contact pressure 7 . In this case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cold-forming operation, contraction subsequent to welding, or cold straightening after annealing. In the case under investigation the hardness tests showed that during fabrication appreciable hardening due to cold-working had taken place as is, of course, inevitable. The location of the failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... were manufactured in the form of a coil ( Fig. 2 ), which was then straightened by attachment to a lower support (or by a weight) at the bottom ( Fig. 1 ). The wires were 2.6 mm (0.10 in.) in diameter. The chemical specification ( Table 1 ) of the Swedish steel from which the wires were made shows...