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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Repeated failures of high-pressure ball valves were reported in a chemical plant. The ball valves were made of AFNOR Z30C13 martensitic stainless steel. Initial examination of the valves showed that failure occurred in a weld at the ball/stem junction end of austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract The radial-contact ball bearings (type 440C stainless steel and hardened) supporting a computer microdrum were removed for examination as they became noisy. Two sizes of bearings were used for the microdrum and a spring washer that applied a 50 lb axial load on the smaller...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A drawing plant which processed steel wire of designation 105 Cr 2 for ball bearings had losses due to crack formation and wire breakage during drawing. To establish the reason for the breakage, seven fractures were submitted for investigation with contiguous wire segments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of fatigue crack(s) in the inner race. When the crack reached the critical size, the collar of the race fractured, causing subsequent damage. The cage also failed due to excessive stresses in the axial direction, and its material was smeared on the steel balls and the outer race. aircraft bearings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Incorrect grounding of an electric motor resulted in electric current passing through a 52100 steel ball bearing and caused multiple arcing between the rolling elements. The multiple arcing developed a pattern on the outer race known as ‘fluting’. A section of ball race outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A carbon steel ball-peen hammer ejected a chip that struck the user's eye. Failure occurred when two hammers were struck together during an attempt to free a universal joint from an automotive drive shaft. Two samples were cut from the face of the hammer one through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Ball bearings made of type 440C stainless steel hardened to 60 HRC and suspected as the source of intermittent noise in an office machine were examined. A number of spots on the inner-ring raceway were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The metal in the area around...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract An automotive front-wheel outer angular-contact ball bearing generated considerable noise shortly after delivery of the vehicle. The inner and outer rings were made of seamless cold-drawn 52100 steel tubing, the balls were forged from 52100 steel, and the retainer was stamped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... ball bearings. The ball bearings were both of the single-row deep-groove type with split inner rings, manufactured for use in jet-aircraft engines. The bearings were made of vacuum-melted 52100 steel and were designed to operate at a maximum temperature of 175 °C (350 °F). The bearings were side...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... techniques has produced ceramic materials that are a suitable alternative to steel for rolling-contact bearing design. This is especially true for hybrid ball bearings; that is, precision angular-contact ball bearings using ceramic rolling elements are now offered as standard components within the ball...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Inner rings of spherical roller bearings out of full hardening ball bearing steel 100 CrMn 6 (Fe-1C-1.5Cr-1.1Mn, Material No. 1.3520) failed in service. Due to the cracks, parts from the middle flange broke or the rings failed in radial direction completely. All the cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the RCF of a homogeneous material surface. Fig. 1 Typical morphology of fatigue spall in rolling-element bearings. (a) Fatigue spall centered on a ball bearing raceway. (b) Fatigue spall on 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) diameter steel ball obtained using rolling four-ball machine Prediction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... bearing consisted of a pair of thin, 140 mm (5.5 in.) diam, angular contact bearings mounted back to back. The cage was made of a phenolic laminate, and the races and balls were made of 52100 heat-treated steel. Grease was used as a lubricant. The maximum permissible operation temperature for this bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract An API type 2 steel clamp located on the riser of a semisubmersible drilling rig between the lower ball joint and riser blowout preventer (BOP) conductor failed after 7 years of service. Failure analysis revealed the cause of failure to be the low toughness of the clamp...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... on a single decker bus fractured, after 100,000 miles service, in the fully extended left full-lock position. The steering damper, which is similar in shape and operation to a telescopic shock absorber, is secured by ball joints locked with slotted nuts. The steel piston rod fractured at the axle end leaving...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract Ball joints made from carburized En 353 (BS970:815A16) steel failed after several hours of being fitted into vehicles. The parts were forged, machined, and thread rolled. The threads were copper plated to prevent carburization. The heat treatment consisted of carburizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years the ball-and-race coal pulverizer was investigated after noises were noted in it. Its lower grinding ring was attached to the 6150 normalized steel outer main shaft while the upper grinding ring was suspended by springs from a spider...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in this type of environment because of constant temperature changes, and they normally are replaced after eight months. The bearings were lubricated by a molybdenum sulfide paste. Judging by their structure the needles probably consisted of ball bearing steel. They showed corroded initial cracks of the pitting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Experiments were performed with a bearing ball on a bearing steel (1.0C–1.5Cr) specimen that was statically bent to give residual stresses over a range of −900 to 900 MPa (−130 to 130 ksi). When the specimen was vibrated with a contact load of 216 N (22 kgf) and an alternating tangential load of ±20 N (±2 kgf...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... work-hardened surface at the intrados of the hook. Fig. 8 In order to obtain some data on the work-hardening capacity of this material, a specimen was cut from the side of the hook and severely indented by pressing into it a hard steel ball of 3 4 in. diameter. As work hardening...