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steam-injected cleaning

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ). Fig. 1 Both sides of the fracture surface from a failed steam accumulator. Section of the vessel is the upper piece, and the mating head is the lower piece. The initial laboratory examination after cleaning of the samples disclosed that the weld penetration ranged from less than 50 to 75...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified as to alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Frequency and methods of cleaning fireside and waterside surfaces of steam generators Materials specified as to alloy requirements and dimensions Frequency and location of any previous failures Length of service of the failed component Any unusual operating history Such details can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... combustion gases, steam, or water to gases, vapors, or liquids of various types. Heat exchangers are of tube, plate, or sheet construction. Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet construction are often preferred for smaller fluid streams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... exchangers are used to transfer heat from/to combustion gases and steam or water to/from gases, vapors, or liquids of various types where, for example, the effluent is used to heat the incoming stream or external water cools the reactant steam. A great variety of heat-exchanger designs have been used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Fig. 14 ). Fig. 14 Photograph of stress-corrosion cracking (arrows) observed on the outside surface of a steam turbine rotor disk Because the fracture/crack surface may be covered in corrosion product/deposits, it may be necessary to clean these surfaces after the initial examination has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Metallographic examination disclosed many small microfissures in the weld metal, but no microfissures were found in the HAZs of the wrought alloy 400 side of the weld. This section of line contained high thermal stresses that resulted from injection of steam a short distance upstream from the coupling. Chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to wrought Monel pipe. Metallographic examination disclosed many small microfissures in the weld metal, but no microfissures were found in the HAZs of the wrought Monel. This section of line contained high thermal stresses that resulted from injection of steam a short distance upstream from the coupling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or inadvertent exposure of the part to a corrosive foreign substance, such as use of a steam line to feed concentrated caustic during chemical cleaning, the preventive measure may be no more complicated than exclusion of the corrodent from that region of the system. In many instances, however, reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article focuses on common failures of the components associated with the flow path of industrial gas turbines. Examples of steam turbine blade failures are also discussed, because these components share some similarities with gas turbine blading. Some of the analytical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the nuclear power industry have been associated with high-cycle vibration fatigue of socket-welded connections in small-bore piping. These fatigue-induced failures occur at the rate of two or three per plant-year. With over 100,000 socket-welded joints in TU Electric's Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... life of cast components, but will give an unsatisfactory appearance or will make further processing, such as machining, more costly. Many such imperfections can be easily corrected by shotblast cleaning or grinding. Other imperfections or defects that can be more difficult to remove can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the intentional forming of a complete exterior chromium trioxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) film by completely cleaning the surface and allowing oxygen to contact and react with the surface. In the common galvanic series, a noble position is assumed by stainless steels in the passive state, while a more active position...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the boiler-water treatment program, it was decided to inject a chelate to control scale formation in the boiler tubes. Unfortunately, the chelate was added ahead of the preheater, where the boiler water still contained oxygen (O 2 ). As the chelate removed iron oxide, the O 2 formed more iron oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be reduced to a single curve when weight-average molecular weight is used. Plastics with narrow molecular weights are preferred for low warpage in thin-wall injection molding, film extrusion, and rotational molding. Plastics with moderately low molecular weights are suitable for high-speed processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by the flow required to carry a load; hydrodynamic bearings are often flushed by a flow of lubricant to remove heat, which develops mostly in the fluid film itself due to viscous shear. It is convenient, then, to supply filtered lubricant to keep the contact areas reasonably clean. The effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for checking: Dimensional accuracy of weldments Conformity of welds to size and contour requirements Acceptability of weld appearance with regard to surface roughness, weld spatter, and cleanness Presence of surface flaws such as unfilled craters, undercuts, overlaps, and cracks Although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ) ( Ref 35 ). In an attempt to isolate EMIC-capable microorganisms, steel beads were incubated under sulfate-reducing conditions for two years in produced water from an oilfield where nitrate was routinely injected as a treatment chemical. Significant corrosion and pitting were observed ( Ref 36...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and discontinuities in welded joints General Types of Weld Discontinuities Weld discontinuities (or imperfections) can be caused by various design, processing, or metallurgical factors. Joint design, edge preparation, fit-up, cleanness of base metal and filler metal, shielding, and welding technique all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with surface deposits ( Fig. 9 ). Microbially induced corrosion problems are found in refineries, cooling water systems, sprinkler water systems, oilfield water-handling systems, oil pipelines, and pulp and paper mills but are not recognized as a major issue in steam systems ( Ref 57 ). Fig. 8 Friction...