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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 7 Statistical frequency distribution of the depth of forged-in oxide scale More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract Statistical techniques provide the design engineer with a powerful tool for the analysis of failure data. By means of an actual case study, steps required to design a test yielding statistically meaningful data and procedures used in graphical analysis of results are presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... as well as several statistical techniques. Finally, it illustrates some of the techniques with application problems for which probabilistic analysis is an essential element. discrete probability distribution sampling Latin hypercube sampling Monte Carlo sampling probabilistic life assessment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology, and the common methods...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... paper suggested that rational methods of developing safety factors for engineering structures should give due consideration to observed statistical distributions of the design factors. It was not until the 1960s that rapid growth of academic interest in structural reliability theory occurred, stimulated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.15 … Phosphorus 0.008 0.035 max Sulfur 0.023 0.040 max Vanadium 0.004 … Copper 0.17 … Aluminum 0.018 … Fig. 6 Weibull analysis of the depth of forged-in oxide scale Fig. 7 Statistical frequency distribution of the depth of forged-in oxide scale...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and time again, failures occur that prove them wrong. Benefits of Statistics It is in the best interest of each company to keep statistics on failures. As with most databases, computers make this task easier. The type of failure, the material, the root cause, and so on, can all be easily kept...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the true values in the corresponding fracture surface. Therefore, it is essential to use unbiased statistical stereological relationships ( Ref 23 , 24 ) for estimation of the geometric attributes of the features in the fracture surface from the measurements performed on the fracture profiles...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... the statistical result of naked eye inclusion distribution across the cartwheel section selected from 38 sets of failed wheels. The larger inclusion is mainly distributed within the 30 mm beneath the tread of the cartwheel, which corresponds to the occurring position of rim cracking. During heat treatment, higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... proof.” However, time and time again, failures occur that prove the “idiots” are smarter and/or more inventive than the designers think they are. Benefits of Statistics It is in the best interest of each company to keep statistics on failures. As with most databases, computers with analytical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... scientifically rigorous studies with statistical analyses, and understands how to interpret the results of such analyses. This knowledge assists the engineer when examining studies being considered as reliable sources and assessing the validity and robustness of the conclusions drawn in them. Not following any...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of our testing and evaluation a significant amount of base metal loss was documented in all of the samples. Although a statistical-based sampling program was not performed, it would be expected that these samples were consistent with the condition of the overall system. However, there was a strong...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ductility of 1.5 to 2.0%. Plaster-mold castings of this alloy weighing 14 kg (30 lb.) have consistently met specification minimum values of 303 MPa (44 ksi) tensile strength, 228 MPa (33 ksi) yield strength, and 1.5% elongation at a 95% statistical confidence level. If space permits, increasing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to achieve, sustain, and maximize business success ( Ref 8 ). Six Sigma is founded on the use of measurements, facts, and statistics to move organizations in directions that constantly improve and reinvent business processes ( Ref 8 ). The roots of this business system are in the statistical limits set...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a production environment. Six Sigma adopts these themes and extends the “reach” of the system to all levels of organizations, with a system to achieve, sustain, and maximize business success ( Ref 10 ). Six Sigma is founded on the use of measurements, facts, and statistics to move organizations in directions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by its nature as well as a tendency for the large grains to be forged around the corner. All conditions being equal, the fine-grained material had a higher statistical chance of being affected at the specific location that was above the threshold stress. Contrary to these observations, references...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the knowledge regarding clinical implant performance, demonstrates interactions between implants and the body, provides a basis for the development of biocompatible implant materials, encourages design optimization, and assists medical device research. Statistical analysis shows that 5 to 10% of the 6.2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...” (Welding Journal, October, 1958), a statistical survey of laboratory tests and service experience of 149 plates which had cracked in a brittle manner in service showed an average Charpy V-notch energy absorption value of only 7.6 ft.-lb. at the temperatures at which failure occurred in the plates in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and the Douglas DC-8, into passenger service. Industry-wide safety statistics began to be published in 1959, and they were troubling. If the jet airliners were flying at today’s operating tempos, they would have an accident roughly every day. (In commercial aviation statistics, accident is defined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a homogeneous material surface. Fig. 1 Typical morphology of fatigue spall in rolling-element bearings. (a) Fatigue spall centered on a ball bearing raceway. (b) Fatigue spall on 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) diameter steel ball obtained using rolling four-ball machine Prediction of statistical fatigue life...