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statistical risk

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method, the response surface method, and Monte Carlo sampling. A brief introduction to importance sampling, time-variant reliability, system reliability, and risk analysis and target reliabilities is also provided. The article examines the various application problems for which probabilistic analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... theories on which a products liability lawsuit is based and the issues of hazard, risk, and danger in the context of liability. It describes manufacturing and design defects of various products. The article explains a design that is analyzed from the human factors viewpoint and details the preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a production environment. Six Sigma adopts these themes and extends the “reach” of the system to all levels of organizations, with a system to achieve, sustain, and maximize business success ( Ref 10 ). Six Sigma is founded on the use of measurements, facts, and statistics to move organizations in directions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to achieve, sustain, and maximize business success ( Ref 8 ). Six Sigma is founded on the use of measurements, facts, and statistics to move organizations in directions that constantly improve and reinvent business processes ( Ref 8 ). The roots of this business system are in the statistical limits set...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and manufacturing engineers believe they can control the problem by making products and fabrication processes “idiot proof.” However, time and time again, failures occur that prove the “idiots” are smarter and/or more inventive than the designers think they are. Benefits of Statistics In most instances...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was confirmed in 33.8% of 554 samples removed from pressure vessels and piping operating at high temperature [ 1 ]. The study made at that time associated statistically the presence of aluminum to the graphitization [ 2 ]. Although the literature may present contradictions [ 3 ], the presence of aluminum alone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of our testing and evaluation a significant amount of base metal loss was documented in all of the samples. Although a statistical-based sampling program was not performed, it would be expected that these samples were consistent with the condition of the overall system. However, there was a strong...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... DC-8, into passenger service. Industry-wide safety statistics began to be published in 1959, and they were troubling. If the jet airliners were flying at today's operating tempos, they would have an accident roughly every day. [1] Instead, commercial jets operated by U.S. airlines had seven...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Action(s) Step 9: Evaluate Effectiveness of Selected Corrective Action(s) Benefits of Statistics Why Determine Root Cause? The four-step problem-solving process that most engineers are taught is a good overall view of a failure investigation: In most instances, the purpose of a failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... begins with discussion about the concept of the probability of detection (POD), on which the statistical reliability of crack detection is based. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection, including visual-examination tools, scanning technology in dimensional metrology...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occurs in a catastrophic manner. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature can be above room temperature, putting at risk structures that operate below room temperature. This occurs in tanks such as molasses tanks, pressure vessels, ships such as the Liberty warships, and high-strength alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... be classified into two major types: waterside and fireside corrosion. Oxidative corrosion significantly reduces the thickness of tube walls, increases vapor temperature, and creates serious risks to high-temperature components in operation [ 4 , 5 ]. This study investigated a boiler explosion caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Perspective , Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering , Vol. 1 ( No. 3 ), Wiley , 1994 , p 209 – 228 23. Bowles J.B. and Bonnell R.D. , Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (What It Is and How to Use It) , Topics in Reliability and Maintainability and Statistics, Annual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... prior to proceeding with residual-stress measurements. Collection Time Low collection times can introduce random errors due to insufficient x-ray counting statistics ( Ref 1 , 7 , 27 ). Random errors become apparent during repeatability tests; therefore, x-ray data collection times should...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Diffraction Instrumentation X-Ray Elastic Constant Determination (ASTM E 1426) Surface Condition Evaluation Collection Parameter Selection In general, a statistically representative population of specimens should be chosen for analysis to accurately determine if any of the microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... loads to speed. The life of a bearing can only be approximated since, if a number of samples of a particular type of bearing are run under similar conditions, the usual statistical scatter in the life before failure will be shown. The nominal life is assumed to be the number of revolutions that 90...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... S. and Campbell S. , “ Monitoring the Mitigation of MIC Risk in Pipelines ,” Paper 06662, Corrosion 2006, NACE International , 2006 25. Li Y. , Xu D. , Chen C. , Li X. , and Jia R. , Anaerobic Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Mechanisms Interpreted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or marine environments generally host anaerobic microbial populations, including SRB that can create MIC problems. Guides have been developed at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology to assess the potential risk of MIC due to SRB for sheet piling in sediments in ports and harbors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the erosion rate of the test material to that of a standard material, results from different test methods and different laboratories can be directly compared and are reasonably consistent ( Ref 66 ). Calculation of NER values and statistical analysis of erosion rate data are discussed in detail in Ref 55...