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statistical process control

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to permit adequate annealing of all subsequent experimental links. Had this been a production component, quality control would have been altered so that they could initiate reasonable processing controls. Fig. 5 Actuating link failure. Evaluation of Corrective Action A new group of 12 lock...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... noted in the public domain through lawsuits and newspaper articles. The combination of fast and cheap with the use of low-cost personnel can be disastrous. Design and manufacturing engineers believe they can control the problem by making products and fabrication processes “idiot proof.” However, time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... identifies. The failure process is a chain of events beginning far into the distant past and ending in the inability of the asset to perform its function. Which specific event should be called the cause of the failure? Typically, one selects events that can be easily controlled and that will also have...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to achieve, sustain, and maximize business success ( Ref 8 ). Six Sigma is founded on the use of measurements, facts, and statistics to move organizations in directions that constantly improve and reinvent business processes ( Ref 8 ). The roots of this business system are in the statistical limits set...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be disastrous. The author has a saying: “Faster. Cheaper. Better. Pick two.” It means that assembly, fabrication, or design changes can achieve two of these goals but not all three. Design and manufacturing engineers believe they can control the problem by making products and fabrication processes “idiot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that constantly improve and reinvent business processes ( Ref 10 ). The roots of this business system are in the statistical limits set for the maximum number of defects in a product, as a fraction of the total number of opportunities for such defects to occur. To the practitioners of this system, “six sigma...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for potential failure by using specialized condition monitoring equipment, existing process instrumentation (such as flow rates, pressures, and temperatures), existing quality management techniques (such as statistical process control), or the human senses. It should be clear that an on-condition task...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...). The identification and elimination of the root cause of failure becomes extremely difficult if the controls and records of these controls are shoddy or nonexistent. Thus, most manufacturing companies have statistical quality-control and statistical process-control programs that document and analyze incoming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 20 years because of the difficulty in employing a probabilistic-statistical approach to design criteria development. On the eve of the 1970s, Cornell ( Ref 6 ) developed a second-moment format and concept of a safety index. This safety index was used to account for uncertainties in the design process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the goal of analysis is to provide a mathematical synthesis of the uncertainty that is convenient for the decision-making process. For a statistical summary, two indexes are useful. The sample mean is defined as: X ¯ = 1 n ∑ i = 1 n X i The mean is a measure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... In the present investigation, the main failure modes of cartwheel, especially rim cracking, were analyzed. The mechanical properties of six kinds of wheel steels used in China with different carbon content and processing were measured. Their effect on performance of cartwheel was analyzed. 2. Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-control methods, equipment, and services; cost of labor attributed to corrosion management; cost of use of more expensive materials to lessen corrosion damage; and cost of lost revenue, loss of reliability, and loss of capital due to corrosion deterioration. Only selected industrial sectors were analyzed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or control the effects of all important failure modes. Single-point failures identified during the analysis should be uniquely identified so as to maintain their visibility throughout the design process. The FMEA Process The FMEA methodology is based on a hierarchical, inductive approach to analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Manufacturing defects are defects acquired during the manufacturing process, which may or may not compromise product safety. Manufacturing defects not discovered through internal quality audits and inspections may cause a defective product to become introduced into the stream of commerce. Warnings defects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and practical examples are provided. fracture profilometry quantitative fractography scanning electron microscope three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction A FRACTURE SURFACE is generated by the deformation and fracture processes operative at numerous length scales ranging from nanometers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... well the manufacturing processes are controlled. Such scatter (or lack of process control) in and of itself can be a contributing factor to a wide variability in the effective service-life-to-failure period for components manufactured with uncontrolled or poorly controlled processes. This can result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... phenomena in materials. This approach is the more contemporary strain-life approach, where the strain rather than the stress is the control variable, and the cycles to failure is the dependent variable. Rabinowitz and Beardmore in 1974 ( Ref 6 ) and Beardmore and Rabinowitz in 1975 ( Ref 7 ) were perhaps...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... revolutionized design philosophies, inspection techniques and practices, material development, and material processing and controls and have redefined the criteria for failure. Furthermore, the pursuit of understanding how and why these failures occurred have resulted in the development of structural-integrity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... values that is greater than the experimental error. In practice, the number of specimens that are representative of a population may be related to how well the manufacturing processes are controlled. Such scatter (lack of process control or variations inherent to incoming material) in and of itself can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., material development, and material processing and controls and have redefined the criteria for failure. Furthermore, the pursuit of understanding how and why these failures occurred has resulted in the development of structural-integrity programs, enhanced analytical modeling and prediction techniques...