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statistical distribution

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The Weibull distribution is the statistical model used as a basis for these techniques. This method of failure analysis provides the engineer with clear, positive design direction. Door lock assembly Fatigue (materials) Statistical analysis Weibull distribution Metal (Other, miscellaneous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... site. These inclusions are composed of Al 2 O 3 plus 6Al 2 O 3 · CaO, and, sometimes, duplex inclusions MnS plus Al 2 O 3 are also found. Table 2 gives the statistical result of naked eye inclusion distribution across the cartwheel section selected from 38 sets of failed wheels. The larger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and many returned steering arms were metallographically sectioned and examined microscopically to determine the statistical distribution of the forged-in oxide scale and the propensity to initiate fatigue cracks. Several steering arms that were unused were also sampled and examined for forged-in oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... paper suggested that rational methods of developing safety factors for engineering structures should give due consideration to observed statistical distributions of the design factors. It was not until the 1960s that rapid growth of academic interest in structural reliability theory occurred, stimulated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for the maximum number of defects in a product, as a fraction of the total number of opportunities for such defects to occur. To the practitioners of this system, “six sigma” is a statistical metric referring to six times the statistical standard deviation of a normal distribution, which allows no more than 3.4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...” is a statistical metric referring to six times the statistical standard deviation of a normal distribution, which allows no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... profile do not necessarily represent the true values in the corresponding fracture surface. Therefore, it is essential to use unbiased statistical stereological relationships ( Ref 23 , 24 ) for estimation of the geometric attributes of the features in the fracture surface from the measurements...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... resulting from tension-tension fatigue (the two symbols represent two samples). Source: Ref 51 Fig. 23 Subsurface residual-stress distribution after grinding hardened steel (stress measured in the direction of grinding). Source: Ref 3 Fig. 24 Residual-stress profiles on unpeened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-stress distribution after grinding hardened steel (stress measured in the direction of grinding). Source: Ref 3 Fig. 24 Residual-stress profiles on unpeened and peened samples Fig. 32 Residual stress versus depth profiles for a variety of additive-manufactured materials Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... P. , and Withers P.J. , The Heterogeneous Distribution of White Etching Matter (WEM) around Subsurface Cracks in Bearing Steels , Acta Mater. , Vol 174 , 2019 , p 300 – 309 10.1016/j.actamat.2019.05.052 72. Gould B. , Greco A. , Stadler K. , Vegter E...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... mechanisms, the role of material selection, and examples where fracture mechanics analyses provided insight into the failure. The failure analysis findings were statistically analyzed to provide a distribution of the failure mechanisms as a function of materials. As well, the mechanisms were correlated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and its effect on material properties and structures. In general, the more randomly distributed the nodules, the less effect they have on structural integrity. In the cases examined, the nodules were found to be organized in planar arrays, indicating they might have an effect on material properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... has elapsed. Calculations predict life exhaustion. Service time has reached some arbitrarily chosen fraction of calculated or experimental failure life. Previous failure statistics indicate high probability of failure. Frequency of repair renders continued operation uneconomical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., films, nonmetals, composites, assemblies Acoustic emission (AE) Multiple distributed sensors detect and triangulate AE stress-wave source in response to mechanical or thermal stress. Corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, weld cracking, creep and fatigue cracking Sensitive to noise and vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situation, including the loads and the distribution of stresses within the configuration. Is there an additional load/stress that was not included in the analysis, which changes the stress distribution? Or is the stress analysis incorrect? In many cases, however, stress analysis alone is not sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of statistical fatigue life ( Ref 8 , 9 , 10 ) and failure modes ( Ref 4 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ) during RCF in conventional bearing steels also has been the focus of hundreds of papers and numerous books ( Ref 18 , 19 , 20 ) in published literature. The scope of this article focuses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003505
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the design and expected performance, plus all phases of production and distribution. A new checklist should be developed for each new product. It is good practice for a designer/manufacturer to have some sort of permanent review process in addition to the ad hoc board for each individual product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the substrate interface and granular boundaries with a distribution width of 2–5 μm. The numerous white points and subtle voids in the zone signify erosion. Table 2 shows the statistical results of the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of composition in different areas (from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Acknowledgments References References 1. Mack G. A. et al. , “Statistical Analysis of Burlington Northern and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail Failures,” Task 5 Final Report to the Department of Transportation from Battelle-Columbus Laboratories, Contract No. DOT TSC-1708 (June 8, 1982...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...