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spring steel (spring steel, general)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel arc damage SEM imaging fracture morphology spring steel (spring steel, general) Introduction Analysis Conclusion References References 1. Davis J.R. (ed.), ASM Metals Handbook Volume 12: Fractography ( ASM International , Materials Park , 1987 ), pp. 280 – 281...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., provide flexibility, and absorb or store energy. Springs are made in a variety of shapes and sizes, ranging from delicate hairsprings for watches to massive buffer springs for railroad equipment. In general, springs may be classified as wire springs, flat springs, or special-shaped springs, with several...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... 14×. (d) Metollographic cross section of the seam. The light flecks near the surface are ferrite; the gray areas in the seam are unidentified nonmetallics, probably oxides. 100× Fig. 4 Nickel plated 1095 steel pawl spring that fractured by fatigue. (a) Configuration and dimensions (given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Life testing of cyclic loaded, miniature extension springs made of 17-7 PH stainless steel wire and AISI 302 Condition B stainless steel wire has shown end hook configuration to be a major source of weakness. To avoid cracking and subsequent fatigue failure, it was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Failure of AISI type 321 stainless steel internal springs from newly manufactured lip seals on a shaft between a turbine power unit and a pump in a commercial aircraft secondary unit was investigated. Examination of the coils from two failed springs showed that both had failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... steel spring with an average hardness of 50 HRC and an ultimate tensile strength of 1587 MPa (230 ksi). Fig. 2 Failed boom hoist brake spring that fractured at four places. Examination of this spring revealed the presence of a longitudinal line defect which is 0.076-cm (0.03-in) deep...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... melting temperature of the material Fig. 6 Valve springs made from patented and drawn high-carbon steel wire. Distorted outer spring (left) exhibited about 25% set because of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure and high operating temperature. Outer spring (right) is satisfactory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and original beam dimensions, divided by yield strength. Fig. 6 Valve springs made from patented and drawn high-carbon steel wire. Distorted outer spring (a) exhibited approximately 25% set because of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure and high operating temperature. Outer spring (b...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract To samples of helical compression springs were returned to the manufacturer after failing in service well short of the component design life. Spring design specifications required conformance to SAE J157, “Oil Tempered Chromium Silicon Alloy Steel Wire and Springs.” Each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... alignment. It was recommended that improved assembly procedures be used and that, if another failure occurred, a steel of higher fatigue strength be used. Vehicles Leaf springs 304 UNS S30400 Fatigue fracture Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A flat spring for the main landing gear of a light aircraft failed after safe execution of a hard landing. The spring material was identified by chemical analysis to be 6150 steel. The fracture was found to have occurred near the end of the spring that was inserted through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract A valve-seat retainer spring (made of 0.23 mm thick 17-7 PH stainless steel) from a fuel control on an aircraft engine was found to be broken after 3980 h of service. The two inner tabs were found to be broken off. The part was revealed to be in relative rotation against its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... occurred. How decarburization changes workpiece properties and the case of hydrogen decarburization are addressed through examples. Cracking (fracturing) Decarburizing Nitriding steel Manganese-vanadium steel Silicon spring steel Intergranular fracture Hydrogen damage and embrittlement High...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and the stringers provided a path for crack propagation and coalescence of the microcracks. Manganese sulfide inclusions frequently served as the primary crack path. Another failure mode observed in flow forming of SAE 4130 steel was the formation of fish scales ( Fig. 8 ). Fish scales were generally observed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... resolution, speed, and excellent accuracy, and, in many cases, measurements can be performed nondestructively ( Ref 13 ). The measurement of residual stress via XRD is generally limited to polycrystalline materials ( Ref 6 ), that is, in materials with a grain structure (long-range ordering) as normally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stresses in their analysis. Fig. 23 Subsurface residual-stress distribution after grinding hardened steel (stress measured in the direction of grinding). Source: Ref 3 The XRD technique is generally applied to the measurement of residual stress in polycrystalline materials used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the spring during qualification testing. Applications Pertinent Specifications Visual Examination of General Physical Features All the samples were examined in an SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) microprobe. Metallographic cross sections were also prepared in the longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the fatigue fracture. Helical springs Medium-carbon steel Joining-related failures Fatigue fracture A medium-carbon helical spring was installed in a machine assembly that was welded into its final location. During welding, which was conducted several inches from the spring, no shield was used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel (alloy steel, general) Introduction Procedure Results Fractography Microstructure Stress Analysis Documented Service Failure Discussion Conclusions References References 1. Fett G.A. : Characterization of Semi Float Axle Shaft Bending Failures . SAE Tech...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Grain Size Effects Variation and Inhomogeneity Effects Hardenability Calculations Heat Treating and Hardenability Welding and Hardenability Case History #1 - Compression Spring Fracture Case History #2 - Axle Bar Cracking Case History #3 - HSLA Steel Welding Failure Case History...