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spray-up process

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... a year prior to failure the inner race of the roller bearing became slack on the shaft and the seating was built up by the metal-spray process. The shaft was machined to form a rough thread to provide the requisite mechanical key for the sprayed-on metal. Part of this sprayed-on layer became detached...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... carried out. To the uninitiated on the other hand, welding appears on obviously simple process and the apparent ease with which metal can be deposited has led to many instances of misuse. It has been applied to materials which are only weldable by special procedures, to the indiscriminate building-up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...-cylinder oil engine were built up by the metal-spraying process. Four weeks later the shaft broke through the pin remote from the flywheel (driving) end. The fracture, as shown in Fig. 1 , was of the fatigue type, a creeping crack having originated in the fillet at the “inside’, surface of the pin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The reason why the rod had been built up in this manner was not clear, since a coating of steel on steel would not be expected to confer superior corrosion resistance although it might improve the resistance to wear. Inquiry revealed that the rods had suffered corrosive attack, presumably insufficiently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... years' service in a saline atmosphere. Figure 3 shows in close-up a similar form of attack on a butt joint strap used in a lifting device exposed to an industrial atmosphere. Removal of the corrosion product from surfaces attacked in this manner reveals the characteristic step-like mechanism...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., and sliding distance up to 25 km. Wear intensity I was determined by the formula (Eq 1) I = Δ m / L ⋅ S where Δ m is weight loss, L is sliding distance, and S is contact area. To perform a test for determining the quality of babbit cohesion with the base (steel, babbit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on a disk; up to 800 °C (1470 °F); ball speed up to 7200 rpm; disk speed up to 3600 rpm; variable slide/roll ratios; traction measurements; designed for ceramics Ref 27 Note: NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Further information can be found on the following pages of Ref 26...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... up to about 500 m/s (1640 ft/s) for durations of 2 to 3 μs ( Ref 3 ); associated collapse pressures are of the order of 1 to 1.4 GPa (145 to 203 ksi). (See Ref 4 for a compilation of past investigations of collapse pressures.) The impacts of these microjets, perhaps in conjunction with simultaneous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... up in the laboratory with an environment as close as possible to the environment of interest. In these cases, sufficient time must be allowed for an appropriate response; a short time exposure likely will not produce enough corrosion activity to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure itself. The design process that led up to the physical failure is of great importance when trying to get back to the root cause because it is during the design process that all the original contributing factors are brought together to create the components that are assembled into the complete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the component surface nucleate cracks, which propagate into the subsurface and then back up to the surface. Due to the similarity between these two failure modes, both are commonly referred to as RCF in modern texts. Fig. 1 Relative occurrence of different bearing failure modes Hertzian Contact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., 140.0, and 140.5 kHz. At each frequency the maximum amplitude occurs at the end crowns (where failure was observed during crimping) Fig. 13 Close up of stent shape when resonance occurs at a natural frequency of 140.0 kHz Discussion Ultrasonic cleaning is a seemingly benign process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... consideration is given to the stresses and strains that these joint types will be subjected to during operation. One alternate joint design without capillary action fit-up requirements is a process called braze welding. Braze welding is the term for a brazing process where a large volume of brazing alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in-house identification. In-detail photographic documentation should be made in the as-received condition. Next, samples are thoroughly examined in the as-received condition after removing any packaging and so on. During examination, areas requiring further in-detail examination should be marked up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... associated with extrusion and drawing operations, although it can be generated by forging and rolling processes as well. Central bursts are internal fractures caused by high hydrostatic tension. The severe stresses that build up internally cause transverse subsurface cracks. Some of the factors that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in question) as the “line in the sand” for overtemperature assessment. However, the engineering design process may have determined that the metal temperature of the airfoil must be below 925 °C (1695 °F) from the root up to 35% span, or else the blade fails to attain the specified creep life. If the operator...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and leaching of salt from the concrete. Beam A1, which is typical of all beams used in the Rocky Point Viaduct, had a 0.38 m (15 in) by 1.2 m (48 in) cross section. The lower portion of the beam (farthest from the roadbed) contained up to 8 lengths of 3.8 cm (1.5 in) square rebar with 1.3 cm (0.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of cracks located all over the groove of the flange ( Fig. 3b – d ). Fig. 2 ( a ) Ring gasket, ( b – c ) close-up views of regions A and B, respectively, marked in ( a ) showing cracks (arrows) in the circumferential direction Fig. 3 ( a ) a part of the flange of RTJ, ( b ) close-up view...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in World War II ( Ref 1 , 2 ). A total of 2710 Liberty ships were completed, and 12 of them experienced complete hull fracture. One example is that of the SS Schenectady after suffering a fracture of the hull while tied up at the outfitting pier on January 16, 1943 ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Example...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... part is heated, it transforms to austenite, with an accompanying reduction in volume, as shown in Fig. 21 ( Ref 17 ). When it is quenched, the structure transforms from austenite to martensite, and its volume increases. If these volume changes cause stresses to be set up that are constrained within...