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spray quenching

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... during heat treating and describes the metallurgical sources of stress and distortion during heating and cooling. The article summarizes the effect of materials and the quench-process design on distortion and cracking and details the effect of cooling characteristics on residual stress and distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) in a catalyst tube to form a mixture of CO 2 , CO, H 2 , and CH 4 gases. These gases are then cooled to 400 to 425 °C (750 to 800 °F) in the quench pot vessel by mixing the gases with a water spray over a series of pall rings. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the quench pot pressure vessel. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are mostly produced by extrusion. Some material processed this way has been prone to exfoliation corrosion. Extended aging for 24 h at a temperature of 185 deg C (365 deg F) virtually suppresses the tendency for exfoliation corrosion to develop. Also, the use of a sprayed coating, either of aluminum or Al...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract A bolt manufacturer observed that products made from certain shipments of steel 41 Cr4 wire were prone to the formation of quench cracks in their rolled threads. The affected wire was tested and found to be highly sensitive to overheating because of the metallurgical method by which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... hardening and cracking in the heat affected zone. On reflection it will be apparent that the abstraction of heat from the welded zone by the cold mass of the shaft is equivalent to a rapid quench. in welding these materials, therefore, due consideration must be given to pre-heat temperatures, electrode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... line. The gasifier outlet probe did not show an abnormal temperature, but this probe was located in the outlet downstream of a water spray, which may have masked any change in operating condition. The data from the other probe showed that the quench chamber temperature had exceeded its normal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or shrink-fitted members, where high degrees of stress concentration exist. Such stress concentration effectively reduces fatigue resistance, especially when coupled with fretting. Metallurgical stress raisers may be quench cracks, corrosion pits, gross nonmetallic inclusions, brittle second-phase particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or shrink fits. Shafts often break at edges of press-fitted or shrink-fitted members, where high degrees of stress concentration exist. Such stress concentration effectively reduces fatigue resistance, especially when coupled with fretting. Metallurgical stress raisers may be quench cracks, corrosion pits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... sticking to the bore surface. Recommendations included reducing the pouring temperatures of the molten metal and spraying a thicker insulating coating onto the mold surface. Centrifugal casting Foundry practice Molds Overheating 4130 UNS G41300 Casting-related failures The forged 4130...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... revealed only slight deformation at the raceway corners ( Figs. 5 , 6 ). The core microstructure exhibited a quenched and tempered martensitic structure with carbides homogenously dispersed throughout the cross-section. Although the bony or branchlike carbide morphology is not desirable [ 2 – 4 ], further...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deposition, and thermal spraying (TS). It provides a background to RCF in bearing steels in order to develop an understanding of failure modes in overlay coatings. The article describes the underpinning failure mechanisms of TiN and diamond-like carbon coatings. It presents an insight into the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for bearing steels. The standard solution is to quench and temper the steel to produce a fine, uniform, tempered martensite. This results in a material with a Vickers hardness of 750 or higher that is resistant to RCF as well as wear. Another alternative gaining popularity is a dual-phase bainite/martensite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... scattered from the fracture features; glare is reduced, and image contrast is improved. Fig. 1 Illustration of a cleavage fracture in a quenched and tempered low-carbon steel examined using three direct methods and three replication methods. (a) LM cross section (nickel plated). Etched with Vilella's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., with an additive for corrosion protection and lubrication, should be directed uniformly into the cut. Wet cutting produces a smooth surface finish and, most importantly, guards against excessive surface damage caused by overheating. Figure 1 shows the surface of quenched and tempered A2 tool steel (59 HRC) cut...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of voids in the coating layer ( Fig. 10 ). Micro-cracks were observed near the surface and a large secondary crack was observed at the end due to the high deformation ( Fig. 11 ). The rod material was of type 8610 and spray coated with a Ni-Cr-B eutectic alloy. Since the material was operating in sour...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... postforming processes Process Possible defects Electroplating Hydrogen embrittlement, galvanic corrosion Heat treatment Excessive grain growth, burning of grain boundaries, brittle structure, carburization, decarburization, quench cracks Electrolytic cleaning Pitting Surface hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...- and cobalt-base alloys and precious metals (gold, platinum, and palladium). These filler materials, when used with improved atmospheres such as ultradry hydrogen and vacuum and equipment such as vacuum furnaces with gas-quenching capabilities, have raised the upper-temperature brazing limit to above 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... quenched and tempered to a tensile strength of 1793 to 1931 MPa (260 to 280 ksi) have been attributed to stress concentration that resulted from a large grain size in the shank. Other failures in these 25 mm (1 in.) diameter bolts, as well as in other similarly quenched-and-tempered steel bolts, were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... titanium oxides were observed on titanium sparger surfaces. Below the oxide layers, there was a well-developed heat-affected zone (HAZ). The oxide layers, quench cracks in the oxide, and observed microstructure in the HAZ, including lack of alpha grain growth in the parent metal, indicate that the sparger...