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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of cyclic loading. The precise cause of the unsatisfactory microstructure of the carbonitrided case could not be determined, but it was apparent that heat-treating specifications had not been closely followed. Recommendations included that inspection procedures be modified to avoid the use of steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A plant had manufactured and heat treated their product in house for years. As time went on, the special steel that they had been using became more expensive, and a switch was made to a more common and less highly alloyed material. However, no change in hardness specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... plastically deformed while two of the deformed leafs did not meet minimal hardness or tensile requirements. Liquid penetrant testing revealed no cracks or other surface discontinuities on the leaf springs. Material sectioned from the soft spring leafs was heat-treated according to specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to the study of service failures (due to severe heating) of aluminum wire connections in residential electrical circuits. Perturbed regions in which the composition underwent a change during the failure were revealed by optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract The bolt in a bolt and thimble assembly used to connect a wire rope to a crane hanger bracket was worn excessively. Two worn bolts, one new bolt, and a new thimble were examined. Specifications required the bolts to be made of 4140 steel heat treated to a hardness of 277...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by subjecting the overheated tube to a flattening test that the tube no longer met ASTM B 337 specifications. Large grain size and numerous needlelike hydride particles were disclosed in the microstructure of the overheated tube. Heating to approximately 815 deg C was revealed by the presence of the flaky oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Critical heat exchanger components are usually manufactured from durable steels, such as stainless steel, which exhibit good strength and corrosion resistance. Failure of a heat exchanger occurred due to specification of a plain carbon steel that did not survive service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the tooth. It was concluded that the seam had been present before the shaft was heat treated and these seams acted as stress raisers during induction hardening to cause the shaft failure. It was recommended that the specifications should specify that the shaft material should be free of seams and other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A T-bolt was part of the coupling for a bleed air duct of a jet engine on a transport plane. Specifications required that the 4.8 mm diam component be made of AISI type 431 stainless steel and heat treated to 44 HRC. The operating temperature of the duct is 425 to 540 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 25 mm (1 in.) diam carrier shaft failed suddenly during operation. The shaft failed near the toe of the 4.8 mm (316 in.) frame-to-shaft 60 deg and 120 deg submerged metal arc (SMA) tack welds after an unknown time in service. Material specifications called for the shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion and describes the corrosion resistance characteristics of specific classes of refractories and structural ceramics. The article also examines the prevention...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Nondestructive metallographic examination of materials frequently must be performed on-site when the component in question cannot be moved or destructively examined. Often, it is imperative that specific microstructural information (i.e., material type, heat treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... axis. The manufacturer welded the inner race to the carrier in a single pass. After several years of service, the attachment weld between the bearing inner race and the turntable failed in the area adjacent to the heat-affected zone. The fracture zone where there was the greatest tension was heavily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and closing of gates. Due to the age of the gear and the time frame of its manufacture, no original material specifications or strength requirements could be located. Likewise, no maintenance records of possible repairs to the gear were available. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, tension...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... species, presumably in an oxide form. The inside surface had the appearance of typical corrosion products. Hardness measurements indicated that the 4340 steel was heat treated to a strength of approximately 862 MPa (125 ksi). It was concluded that the oxide detected on the ballast elbow was iron oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... heat treat hardening specifications. The mode of failure was tooth profile spalling. By definition, spalling originates at a case/core interface or at the juncture of a hardened/nonhardened area. The cause of this failure was either insufficient or no induction-hardened case along the active profile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of the rope. Recrystallization of the steel was revealed during microscopic examination of the wires adjacent to the break which indicated that the wires had been heated in excess of 700 deg C (1292 deg F). The tensile strength of the wires in the rope that broke was 896 MPa whereas the specification required...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses. The source of the stress was thought to be molded-in residual stresses associated with uneven shrinkage. This was suggested by obvious distortion evident on cutting the vessel. Relatively high specific gravity and the elevated heat of fusion indicated that the material had a high level...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract Ball joints made from carburized En 353 (BS970:815A16) steel failed after several hours of being fitted into vehicles. The parts were forged, machined, and thread rolled. The threads were copper plated to prevent carburization. The heat treatment consisted of carburizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to specifications. Samples from both the inner and outer rings were examined. A much lower hardness (25.2 to 18.9 HRC) was indicated during a vertical traverse 4.1 cm from the outer surface of the outer ring while slightly lower hardness values (46.8 to 54.8 HRC) were seen on the hardness traverse on the inner ring...