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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract This paper describes the remote ultrasonic (UT) examinations of a high-level radioactive waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The inspections, carried out by E.R. Holland, R.W. Vande Kamp, and J.B. Elder, were performed from the contaminated, annular space...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... random variables reliability methods simulation methods uncertainty PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS methods for life assessment of structural components were initially developed because engineers realized that the values in loads, material properties, geometries, and, perhaps most importantly, models...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the interplanar spacing. Single-Crystal Cleavage Models It is best to first examine what is meant by “cleavage” in crystalline materials. A figure often used to illustrate the differences in mechanisms for slip and cleavage is that shown in Fig. 2 . A shear stress applied to the material parallel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the specific surface energy of the crack faces, c is the crack length, and a is the interatomic spacing of the fracture planes. This expression becomes equal to the Griffith criterion when the crack-tip radius becomes equal to the interplanar spacing. Single-Crystal Cleavage Models It is best...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., selection of a probability distribution, the failure model definition, and a definition of the probability of failure. The article also explains the solution techniques for special cases and general solution techniques, such as first-second-order reliability methods, the advanced mean value method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the aircraft was landed. The helicopter main rotor blade spar fracture was analyzed by conventional and advanced computerized fractographic techniques. Digital fractographic Imaging Analysis of theoretical and actual fracture surfaces was applied for automatic detection of fatigue striation spacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the circumference of the outer ring where the radial preloading was applied Fig. 3 ( a ) Close-up macro-images of the rollers elements showing uniformly spaced fluting marks and ( b ) close-up macro-images of the outer ring raceway documenting fluting marks at one of the interference points Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... As a first estimation of the critical flaw size the steady state stresses, as determined by a finite element model, (FEM) were considered ( Fig. 2 ). The critical flaw occurred, not surprisingly, in the vicinity of the highest hoop stress as determined by the FEM model. This stress was approximately 80 MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) n λ = 2 d   sin θ Once the d -spacing is measured for unstressed ( d 0 ) and stressed ( d ) conditions, the strain is calculated using the following relationship: (Eq 2) ε = ( d − d 0 ) / d 0 When applying a plane-stress model, the unstressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is measured for unstressed ( d 0 ) and stressed ( d ) conditions, the strain is calculated using the Eq 2 relationship: (Eq 2) ε = ( d − d 0 ) / d 0 When applying a plane-stress model, the unstressed lattice spacing, d 0 , can be substituted with the d -spacing measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... MANUFACTURING (AM) refers to a group of free-form fabrication technologies that incrementally build up a solid part by computer-controlled deposition of material from a digital solid model. The technology is an outgrowth and broadening of rapid prototyping methods that were developed in the 1980s to accelerate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the cycle, E is Young's modulus, σ c is the oxide cohesive strength, a 0 is the atomic spacing, and L is the grain size of the alloy. Equation 6 represents a plasticity-based Griffith equation. It is interesting to note that the model described previously is more likely to apply to coarse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... This observation led to further investigation of weld-joint geometry effects and was the primary input into the development of a model to correlate container/lid geometry with pore size. Fig. 4 Illustration of the void space present from an axial gap between the can and lid, and the volume at the root...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is indicative of a lateral loading condition imparted on the bearing and, by extension, the shaft. Such a condition could have arisen during installation of the replacement bearing. As indicated by the fatigue fracture model presented previously in this paper, a moderate increase in loading, such as would...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Wind tunnel model orientation adjustment system, showing model support, test section floor, supporting carriages, and turntable rail Fig. 2 Turntable rail, showing type and location of cracking Fig. 4 SEM micrograph of region Ia. Rock candy appearance indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... than a large-scale accident. The approach presented is that the analysis and reconstruction is based on the physical evidence. The article provides a brief review of some general concepts on the use and limitations of advanced data acquisition tools and computer modeling. Legal implications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... spacing measurements of long bolt hole crack. Fig. 7 Banded striation pattern observed in service-induced cracks. Fig. 8 Typical etched microstructure of compressor disk material. Fig. 9 Crack-tip branching of bolt hole crack. Fig. 4 Destructive procedures followed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... revealed finely spaced striations on the crack surfaces, supporting a diagnosis of fatigue cracking. Crack initiation in the pulverizer shafts started as a result of fretting fatigue. Greater attention to lubrication was suggested, combined with asking the manufacturer to consider nitriding the splined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... spaced fatigue striations. 3700×. Fig. 10 SEM micrograph of the fracture surface of the crack at a location close to the point at which the transition from fatigue to overload occurred, showing nonuniform fatigue striation spacing (a largest striation followed by two or three small ones). 3700...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) Flutes on transgranular fracture surface Indicates corrosive environment and ductile fracture Crack propagates parallel to flutes Striated or ridged fracture Cyclic loading fatigue striations; Constant spacing, constant stress amplitude; variable spacing, variable stress amplitude...