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sound-emission measurement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... focal point can be used in these cases to obtain highly accurate and high-resolution UT measurements when compared to traditional UT probes. Acoustic emission testing is a UT method that can be used to determine the location and characteristics of an audible sound introduced into a component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... cracking microhardness testing hardness STS403 martensitic stainless steel Introduction The compressor blade on J79 engine has been investigated to determine the cause of failure. The vibration and sounds were recognized by the pilot during take off, the RPM dropped 72%, and some flare...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A large diameter steel pipe reinforced by stiffening rings with saddle supports was subjected to thermal cycling as the system was started up, operated, and shut down. The pipe functioned as an emission control exhaust duct from a furnace and was designed originally using lengths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to produce images (by SEM or AFM), and the second based on chemical spectroscopy to produce chemical spectrographs (by XPS). The purpose in SEM examination of polymers is either to study the surface topography of a failed part or to study and measure surface features. Atomic force microscopy serves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the resulting converted values from Vicker’s to Rockwell C is shown in Table 1 . Chemical analysis of each bearing component was performed using an optical emission spectrometer. The samples were confirmed to comply with the M50 alloy specification ( Table 2 ). The bearing components will be further discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... These include techniques such as Barkhausen noise detection, acoustic emission, vibration analysis, leak detection, and strain gages. These applications of NDE technology in production and in-service settings also are important to recognize and understand during a failure investigation. Overview of various...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information is in the article “X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Acoustic-Emission Inspection Acoustic-emission inspection detects and analyzes minute acoustic-emission signals generated by discontinuities in materials under applied stress. Proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... interface reveals a pronounced network of surface cracking due to rolling-contact fatigue, that is, shelling. The shelled surface attenuates the ultrasonic sound, thus preventing a good reflection. In addition, the analyst is frequently required to decide if the failure was then also causative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in molecules. Transition from one vibrational state to another is related to absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation ( Ref 3 ). These vibrations occur at characteristic frequencies, which correspond to functional groups within the molecular structure of the sample. Fourier transform infrared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the weld image. Ultrasonic Testing In ultrasonic testing, a beam of ultrasonic energy (i.e., nonaudible sound) is directed into a specimen, and either the energy transmitted through the specimen is measured or the energy reflected from interfaces is indicated (see the article “ Fundamentals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or emission of electromagnetic radiation ( Ref 3 ). These vibrations occur at characteristic frequencies, revealing the structure of the sample. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy produces a unique spectrum, which is comparable to the fingerprint of the material. It is the principal analytical technique...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., straightening, sizing, etc.). These metalworking operations have a two-fold purpose. First, they are obviously designed to produce parts with the desired configuration. Secondly, metalworking can develop a final shape with internal soundness and improved mechanical properties by: Improved internal quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... practices should also be considered. Simple matters such as specifying and verifying the proper material and material condition are critical. One company has used portable optical emission spectroscopy equipment for chemical analysis to examine several bulk items supposedly made of alloy steels and found 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Advanced ultra-supercritical >30 >4.4 >700 >1290 42.5–47.0 Increase in plant efficiency through improved Rankine cycle not only results in lower coal consumption but also in reduced emissions of CO 2 and environmentally nonfriendly gases such as NO x , SO x , and particulate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... research into solubility parameters indicated that the total solubility parameter of the chemical was an important factor. This is a measure of the total cohesive attraction between the molecules in a chemical agent. If this attraction is identical to that between polymer molecules, then that particular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... denoted as “C,” for clearance). The accuracy classes “P” and clearance classes “C” are defined within the corresponding standard ( Table 1 ). Useful accuracy and clearance standards and how they can be measured Table 1 Useful accuracy and clearance standards and how they can be measured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the SCC, which occurs due to welding, metalworking process, and stress concentration, including options for investigation and corrective measures. It describes the sources of stresses in service and the effect of composition and metal structure on the susceptibility of SCC. The article provides...