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sound wave method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Modeling of wave fields generated by ultrasonic transducers using a quasi-Monte Carlo method , The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , Vol 149 (No. 7 ), 2021 , p 7 – 15 10.1121/10.0002972 38. Boccardi S. , Malfense Fierro G.P. , and Meo M. , Nonlinear ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... focal point can be used in these cases to obtain highly accurate and high-resolution UT measurements when compared to traditional UT probes. Acoustic emission testing is a UT method that can be used to determine the location and characteristics of an audible sound introduced into a component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... An induction furnace in a steel mill was used to heat and diffuse galvanize (zinc) into the steel strips. A loud, high pitch frequency would radiate from the steel plate during the induction heating process. When the sound began, vertical stripes would also appear on the plating. The stripes on the galvanized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... film and surface roughness as well as on the prediction method for LDI erosion, which have not been reviewed in the last two decades. Fundamentals of Liquid Droplet Impingement Figure 1 illustrates the basic physics of LDI, which are obtained from experimental observation ( Ref 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). More details are available in the article “Eddy-Current Inspection” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials , Volume 17 of ASM Handbook , 2018 ( Ref 22 ). Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection methods depend on sound waves of very high frequency being transmitted through metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... been designated as a gel point. There are two approaches to performing this test. One is to perform separate runs for each frequency. Another more rapid method is to use the multi-wave feature that is available on many software platforms with modern rheometers. Using this approach, gel point can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... test Fig. 1 The schematic view of parallel setup for explosive cladding of plates Abstract Explosive cladding is a viable method for cladding different materials together, but the complicated behavior of materials under ballistic impacts raises the probability of interfacial shear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the wave was launched indicates that there is a discontinuity at a distance vT /2 from the transducer, where v is the velocity of sound in the material under inspection. Such a signal is generally interpreted as being due to a flaw if its amplitude exceeds a predetermined threshold, often deduced from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be nucleated in the liquid, grow to a stable size, and be swept downstream. As the cavities reach regions of higher pressure, they become unstable and collapse violently. Cavity collapses not near a solid boundary tend to be symmetrical, and shock waves are emitted into the surrounding liquid. In contrast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... them as akin to the system of waves that spread across the surface of water when a stone is thrown into it, the point of entry of the stone corresponding to the origin of the crack. This analogy must not be pressed too far, however, for whereas waves on water form concentric circles, there is usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... this inspection, the ship returned to heavy ice and the failure occurred early in November 1995 in multi-year ice in Lancaster Sound, after 5 months in service. Site Investigation Findings One of the blades of the portside propeller had broken at approximately 0.65 of the pitch radius. Its fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... parts or other porous materials. Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection methods depend on sound waves of very high frequency being transmitted through metal and reflected at any boundary such as a metal/air boundary at the surface of the metal, or a metal/crack boundary at a discontinuity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... cause of failure was probably the unanticipated presence of high-frequency stress cycles with very low amplitudes, possibly due to vibration, resonance, or acoustic waves transmitted through the hydraulic fluid. Secondary causes of failure included the presence of high tensile residual stresses in one...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... often results in a suppression of the surface features that are desired. Flexible fiber-optic lighting is often the most appropriate method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nondestructive testing techniques are applicable, what level of metallurgical testing should be performed, and, finally, what quality-assurance documentation is needed. A teamwork approach between the designer and foundry (and, where possible, the ultimate user) is the best (and lowest-cost) method of avoiding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article describes some of the welding discontinuities and flaws characterized by nondestructive examinations. It focuses on nondestructive inspection methods used in the welding industry. The sources of weld discontinuities and defects as they relate to service failures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... problems and improve quality control. Fortunately, improvements have been made since then, and examination methods have improved. This article is an update of Ref 1 . Many of the fundamentals remain the same, but they warrant repeating here and in other publications or other articles in this Volume...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... indications that are found by nondestructive testing methods. Surface features that are causes for rejection include: Excessive mismatch at the weld joint Excessive bead convexity and bead reinforcement Excessive bead concavity, underfill, and undersized welds Sharp undercut and overlap...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., straightening, sizing, etc.). These metalworking operations have a two-fold purpose. First, they are obviously designed to produce parts with the desired configuration. Secondly, metalworking can develop a final shape with internal soundness and improved mechanical properties by: Improved internal quality...