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solute-rich beta alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of very high Cu content. Also note that there is a relatively large globular region of Pb. These Pb-rich regions are larger than the Pb particles in the nut at locations remote from the surface ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 10 shows that these Pb regions are made up of what appear to be small Pb particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... an alloy is corroded, its component metals go into solution as their respective ions. More importantly, more than one reduction reaction can occur during corrosion. Consider the corrosion of zinc in aerated hydrochloric acid. Two cathodic reactions are possible: the evolution of hydrogen and the reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1100 to 1600 °F). Sigma is a brittle, intermetallic, chromium-rich phase that forms in austenitic stainless steels after prolonged exposure to temperatures in the 595 to 930 °C (1100 to 1700 °F) range. Only alloys containing more than approximately 16.5% Cr are affected. The effects of sigma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characteristics, specifically, water rich in sodium bicarbonate and lacking in sulfates. Over time, sodium bicarbonate in boiler water decomposed to sodium carbonate, which then hydrolyzed to form sodium hydroxide ( Ref 5 ). Sodium hydroxide would then concentrate in crevices, such as between rivets...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., if the ingot is badly segregated, hot working just tends to alter the shape of the segregation region into a banded structure. Figure 3 shows banding from a carbon-rich centerline condition in a hot-rolled 1041 steel. Figure 4 shows an extreme example of banding in a hot-rolled plain carbon steel (1022...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be noted that overheating may occur during the solution anneal of age-hardening alloy systems. In this case, grain-boundary porosity by melting of the eutectic constituent occurs and can result in significantly reduced ductility and toughness. The presence of certain tramp elements at the grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and decomposition are investigated. For nickel-base alloys, Grabke et al. ( Ref 14 – 17 ) proposed six mechanisms: Carbon transfer from the gas phase and dissolution of carbon into the metal phase at oxide defect sites Formation of a supersaturated solution of carbon in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... solution for two 18-8 stainless steels (AISI types 304 and 304L) and two more highly alloyed stainless steels (AISI types 310 and 314). As indicated by the nearly level portions of the curves, the threshold stress in this environment is approximately 241 MPa (35 ksi) for high-alloy stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at NASA. The sixth edition of the well-known machine design book, Mechanical Engineering Design, ( Ref 22 ) contains a chapter on addressing uncertainty in machine design. Other examples are given in ref 23 . Nuclear engineering has a long and rich history in applying probabilistic methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a report of void nucleation without particle debonding in an aluminum-lithium alloy ( Ref 31 ). In this alloy, a variation in particle size was present, ranging from very small iron- and silicon-rich particles (the inclusions) to larger particles present because of solute additions for age-hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... There is also a particle size distribution in high-strength age-hardening aluminum alloys, but different behavior in an aluminum casting alloy has been reported ( Ref 31 ). The iron- and/or silicon-rich phases are the inclusions that are smaller than other phases created by solute additions for age-hardening...