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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metal-loss conditions because it provides conservative results and is less difficult to perform (it does not require thickness profiles), which results in a more cost-effective solution when it can be successfully used. A Level 2 assessment was conducted in this case because calculations must include...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from expressions for J -integrals from the EPRI/GE handbook ( Ref 4 ) reformulated to use actual true stress-strain curves. Also, approximations erring on the conservative side were introduced to make the formulae geometrically independent, thus obviating the need for fully plastic power-law solutions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... thickness, calculated with the pseudo-elastic stresses. Although an elastic-plastic criterion would be more appropriate for the first 6 to 7mm (0.24 to 0.28 in.) of the wall thickness, it was thought that the elastic solution would yield a conservative result. The inflection point shown in Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in a corrosive environment will occur using the rising step load (RSL) method and a reasonable exposure time. The stress intensity parameter K is conservative in that it assumes the presence of a sharp crack or defect; and is useful for design as it includes the effect of defect size. Once the K th of each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The basis for the development sequence is twofold: first, to create the best solution for the application, and second, to minimize potential project risks through careful and thoughtful work habits. plastic design plastics Designing with Plastics in Practice Unlike any other category...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and bars. It should be noted that the relationship for notch sensitivity is material dependent and should not be used if there is any doubt as to its applicability. Under such circumstances, it is conservative to assume that the fatigue notch factor is equal to the full value of the stress concentration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... , the critical flaw size is 0.5 mm (0.02 inch). The predictions are conservative compared to those made using the stress intensity factor from the handbook solution. Using the handbook solution (and an 80 % prestressing load) we calculate that for a critical flaw size of 0.12 mm to be stable, the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement, as it is the site of greatest stress concentration. Conservative calculations of average tensile stress in the cap screw shank revealed a static stress greater than 690 MPa (100 ksi) simply due to torquing the screws to the recommended 32.5 N . m (24 lbf . ft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...). The value of K Ic obtained using the above relationship is approximately 37 MPa m (34 ksi in. ). This conservative estimate of K Ic is reasonable for this type of material. To estimate the stress at the time of failure, another relationship ( Ref 2 ), which relates K Ic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and condenser vacuum was approximately 240 kPa (35 psi). The tubes were tested in 70 kPa (10 psi) increments from 170 kPa (25 psi) to a conservative maximum of approximately 520 kPa (75 psi). Pressure was monitored for 60 sec at each increment to verify that there were no leaks. There were no catastrophic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., selection of a probability distribution, the failure model definition, and a definition of the probability of failure. The article also explains the solution techniques for special cases and general solution techniques, such as first-second-order reliability methods, the advanced mean value method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... issue. Unused exemplar scissors were next soaked in room-temperature phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. These scissors cracked within 24 h of PBS- exposure time. Metallurgical analysis of the exemplars indicated intergranular fracture, consistent with the subject blades. These tests confirmed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... methods, however, employ continuum material models and produce only approximations. In general, accuracy improves as the number of elements increases. Convergence techniques are generally employed to ensure that a given solution is “correct.” Program output is the stress state in a given component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to ensure that a given solution is “correct.” Program output is the stress state in a given component or assembly for a given combination of loading and boundary conditions. Although this stress state is unique to a specific coordinate system, most commercially available software packages can extract...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and the ends of welds as well as (b) intermittent welds. When examining failed welded connections, consider the global and local geometric changes. In many situations, failure initiation will occur at these locations, independent of other factors. The solution to such problems often necessitates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from geometric discontinuities or thermal loads must be included in the remaining-life evaluation of a statically indeterminate structure in order to avoid overly conservative life predictions. A case study is provided later in this article to demonstrate stress relaxation and redistribution and its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... metals, although both materials resist chemical attack in different manners. Electrochemical processes attack metals at their interfaces by dissolution in aqueous solutions, whereas the accumulation of surface deposits may limit the corrosive process; both cases will adversely affect structural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...: 180 grit silicon carbide 240 grit silicon carbide 320 grit silicon carbide 400 grit silicon carbide 600 grit silicon carbide 6 micrometre diamond paste with microcloth 0.05 micrometre aluminum oxide with microcloth Acetone Replicating tape Etching solution (3% nitric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... reliability. These problems are more challenging and required development of more efficient and robust solution methods ( Ref 3 , 17 – 21 ). This article focuses on probabilistic structural analyses. Life assessments for components such as electronics, pumps, and valves are not specifically addressed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... similarities. Hydrogen appears to be the vital element in all three types of failure. In hydrogen embrittlement or delayed fracture the hydrogen usually enters the steel during processing or fabrication. It may be absorbed from heat treatment atmospheres, acid cleaning solutions, plating baths or other active...