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solidification structures

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The sulfidized weakened structure of the alloy has led to cracking. Fig. 6 Formation of chromium sulfides (gray areas, such as marked by arrow) along the surface, caused by diffusion of sulfur species along the grain boundaries of IN-690 liner. As expected, sulfide concentration decreases with depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ferrite. This anomalous structure is caused by shortcomings in the foundry practice of chemical composition, solidification, and inoculation control. Judging from the microstructure, the strength of the material was lower than desired for class 30 gray iron, and the suspected heat treatment further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0048804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... surface were found to exhibit chevron marks typical of fatigue or raised points or tears pointing in the direction of the probable origin of failure. The characteristics of the thinwall cast iron structures like the variation in composition due to pouring from multiple ladles, variation in solidification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... two different solidification fronts in the mold, which explains the reason for the structure variances observed on either side of the demarcation line. Although not a crack, the demarcation can serve as a site for crack initiation. In this instance, however, the demarcation line had not propagated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... reveals the Widmanstätten structure ( Figure 10 ). This fracture morphology suggests that the cracks formed during solidification of the casting. The site of these defects, the ends of the blades where material thickness varies rapidly, is also consistent with solidification cracking. Fig. 10 Closer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... coarser network of rod-shaped and plate-shaped precipitates was found, that probably corresponded to the primary grain boundaries, or to the grain boundaries or twin planes of the austenite formed during solidification of the melt. These particles could have been aluminum nitride judging by their shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract On 16 July 1999, a Boeing 737-800 on final approach for landing sustained a major lightning strike. Damage to the fuselage structure primarily was in the form of melting or partial melting of widely-separated rivets and adjacent Alclad 2024-T3 fuselage skin. The damage was confined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at the origin of fracture Figure 3 shows a low-magnification micrograph taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cracked region in one of the blades. The bead had a dendritic solidification structure. Furthermore, it is clear that the fatigue crack initiated at the point of contact of the bead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... adjacent to the external surface. Figure 6 shows fracture through the butt weld which also exhibited a marked columnar crystal structure indicative of the mode of solidification of the weld metal. The layer of scale present on the bore surface is also seen. Fig. 4 Fracture surfaces showing oxidised...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... structures revealed themselves on some of the grain boundary facets ( Figs. 10 – 12 ). However, dendrite arm spacing does not fit this interpretation [ 1 ]. In the case at hand, the spacing is much too narrow for dendritic solidification. In welds where cooling rates are very high, dendrite arm spacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract During the operation of tractors with cantilevered body, the lateral wall of the hypoeutectic cast iron cylinder blocks cracked repeatedly. Three of the blocks were examined. The grain structure of the thick-walled part consisted of uniformly distributed graphite of medium flake size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in a purely pearlitic matrix ( fig. 2 ) in the thicker cross sections. In the thinner cross sections, the graphite had precipitated to a large extent in a fine-leafed structure by supercooled solidification (granular graphite), and the matrix was predominantly ferritic in these regions ( fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., 2.49Si, 0.51Mn, 0.485P, and 0.112S. The iron was thus distinctly hypereutectic. The galling of the pump parts therefore was favored by an unsuitable structure caused by improper composition and fast cooling. Distortion by casting stresses may have been contributory or may have played the principal part...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... formed on solidification were detected. Fig. 6 Structure of scale layer, edge-core-edge, crosssection, unetched. 100× Fig. 7 Voids on the austenite grain boundaries below the scaled region, cross-section, etched in V2A pickling solution. 100× At a certain distance under the scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and the ferritic microstructure caused thereby are a consequence of delayed solidification due to undercooling. The ferrite formation may have been further accelerated by the annealing. This structure showed low strength that had a particular damaging effect on the bottom of the groove at high operating stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Continuation of the cracks was attributed to the brittle condition of the steel when cooled by the night air. A steel with a much lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is essential for this type of structure. Other necessary steps include better control of the girth-welding, choice of a more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... that some copper was accidentally left in the mold when the casting was poured. Liquid copper, carrying with it oxygen in solution, penetrated the austenite grain boundaries as the steel cooled. The oxygen reacted with the steel producing a network of scale outlining the austenite grain structure. When...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., because the solubility of any dissolved gases—often hydrogen—decreases as the liquid cools, during solidification, and as the solid cools. The decrease in solubility produces conditions favorable for gas bubbles to precipitate. Gas porosity is generally quite spherical, as shown in Fig. 1 . “Shrink...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to occur when the design of the gate is such that the molten metal forms a skin across the die surface and then backfills during the remainder of the injection cycle. This is in partial agreement with Bosley 5 who considered that metal waves are connected with preferential die filling and solidification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Table 1 ): Metallic projections Cavities Discontinuities Defects Incomplete casting Incorrect dimension Inclusions or structural anomalies Table 1 International classification of common casting defects No. Description Common name Sketch Metallic Projections...