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solidification simulation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and more associated with voids identified as solidification shrinkage cavities ( Fig. 6b ). This morphology is characteristic of material that has undergone local melting and re-solidification. These voids do not appear to he highly deformed, also indicating that the melting occurred at a late stage during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... microscopy (SEM) of the cracked region in one of the blades. The bead had a dendritic solidification structure. Furthermore, it is clear that the fatigue crack initiated at the point of contact of the bead with the blade surface. In one of the blades, the crack was more than 19 mm (0.75 in.) long, was widest...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Cold tearing C 220: Hot cracking and tearing C 221 (a) Irregularly shaped discontinuities in areas susceptible to tension; oxidized fracture surface showing dendritic pattern Hot tearing C 222 (a) Rupture after complete solidification, either during cooling or heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and composites) ( Ref 4 ). The first type, thermal or cooling stresses, results from rapid, inhomogeneous cooling through the T g range in amorphous polymers or through the solidification range in semicrystalline polymers. When cooling proceeds from the outer layer inward, large thermal gradients...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... specific to the metal group and progress from melting to solidification, casting processing, and finally how the removal of the mold material can affect performance. aluminum casting defects castings copper ductile iron failure analysis gray iron melting solidification steel Introduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... aspects of PBF and DED processes have many similarities to welding but with more complicated transient conditions of heating, melting, solidification, and even reheating, with the potential of additional phase transitions. Like fusion welding, lack of fusion, porosity, and cracking are the types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... mold until primary solidification has occurred; then the mold is opened, and the part(s) are ejected. Several important design rules apply. Fig. 4 Four-cavity (2+2) family injection mold shown opened on the bench with molded parts from the mold in white ABS material. Photo courtesy of Quality...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include: Underbead cracks Gas porosity Inclusions—slag, oxides, or tungsten metal Incomplete fusion Inadequate penetration Solidification cracks, liquation cracks Failure to meet strength, ductility, or toughness requirements is another cause for rejection of weldments. Details...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... “semi-killed” being applied to a product in which complete de-oxidation has not been effected. During the cooling of an ingot of fully killed steel, the normal contraction, which occurs on solidification results in the formation of a deep central cavity or pipe in the top of the ingot, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... principal types. Primary carbides, which form when carbon reacts with strong carbide-forming elements such as tantalum and titanium during the solidification of the molten alloy, have the formula MC, where M is the metallic element. Typically, such carbides have a blocky or scriptlike morphology, as shown...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the most severe thermal condition to simulate the events when the “cold” gland injection flows over the “hot” bearing surface, with temperatures of “cold” and “hot” bodies, as specified previously. This calculation was based on the assumption that the journal material properties (mechanical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the difference in heat flow between a sample and a reference as the material is heated or cooled ( Ref 6 ). The technique is used to evaluate thermal transitions within a material. Such transitions include glass transitions, melting, evaporation, crystallization, solidification, cross linking, chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of various axle studies, with illustrations and concludes with information on the simulation of the LME mechanism. friction-bearing failure liquid-metal embrittlement locomotive axles overheated traction-motor support bearings overheating steel FAILURES OF LOCOMOTIVE AXLES caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the difference in heat flow between a sample and a reference as the material is heated or cooled ( Ref 5 ). The technique is used to evaluate thermal transitions within a material. Such transitions include melting, evaporation, crystallization, solidification, cross linking, chemical reactions, and decomposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., excessive warpage of the component will result in a separation between the component pad and the PCB and will result in an open joint during soldering ( Ref 20 – 22 ). As a result, after the solidification of the solder alloy, so-called cold solder joints are formed ( Fig. 9 ) ( Ref 23 ). Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in Fig. 10 . Metallographic examination revealed that two different microstructures existed in the shroud area: columnar grains and equiaxial grains, as sketched in the figure. This is due to the geometry of the casting and its heat flow consequences during solidification. The entire fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4