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solidification shrinkage

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The quenched-and-tempered microstructure contained solidification shrinkage, inherently poor ductility, and type II Mn-S inclusions that are known to reduce ductility. The macro and microscale fracture features confirmed that the casting was likely in low-temperature service at the time of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the region which undergoes the most deformation during forging. Moreover, the cracks exhibited rounded large intergranular facets associated with localized melting at the grain boundaries. Throughout the shoulder regions there were solidification shrinkage cavities and MnS inclusions. The latter showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the interdendritic and grain boundary regions becomes silicon enriched during solidification, and hot tears form in these regions by the stresses generated by solidification shrinkage. The overload fracture also follows the silicon-rich low-toughness phase and exhibits a higher silicon-to-aluminum ratio than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by solidification shrinkage. Fig. 4 Representative microstructure observed for the aluminum pieces. The structure consists of dendrites of primary aluminum with interdendritic silicon particles. Note the presence of solidification porosity. Unetched. (a) 31.5×. (b) 252× The deposit samples were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forgings that have not been worked sufficiently to close it up. Both macroporosity and microporosity are caused by the combined action of metal shrinkage and gas evolution during solidification. It has been shown ( Ref 2 , 3 ) that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... more or less extended areas Surface pinholes B 124 (a) Small, narrow cavities in the form of cracks, appearing on the faces or along edges, generally only after machining Dispersed shrinkage B 200 Cavities with generally rough walls, shrinkage B 210 Open cavity of Class B...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... . “Shrink,” or more correctly, shrinkage porosity, occurs when an unsolidified portion of the casting separates from the primary liquid during solidification. The volume of liquid in the closed region is not adequate to fill the closure when the liquid to solid transformation is completed. The unfilled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that act as stress raisers, which may adversely affect the performance of the component in service. Subsurface and core discontinuities may also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification. Figure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... holes, and shrinkage defects in the castings. Most of the components failed to meet required mechanical properties because of these casting defects. Bombs (weapons) Tailcones Die castings Heat checking Inclusions Shrinkage Porosity A356 UNS A13560 Casting related failures Introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... temperatures which lead to preferential solidification and to differential shrinkage of the surface away from the cavity walls. This is in agreement with the observations of Carrol 8 that the incorrect layout of water lines in the die is frequently responsible for metal waves on the castings. In addition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with respect to the ring) of the connecting end in the transition area Ingot Pipe, Porosity, and Centerline Shrinkage A common imperfection in ingots is pipe, which is an internal shrinkage cavity formed during solidification of ingots. It occurs in the upper central portion of the ingot ( Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... The fracture was promoted by the formation of undercooled microstructure of low strength in the thin-walled part. Similar damage appeared in a cylinder head, in which case, the cracks were promoted by a supercooled structure. Castings Cylinder heads Engine blocks Shrinkage Stresses Gray iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... In the etched condition, the structure at this location showed evidence that segregation occurred during solidification ( Fig. 20 ). Fig. 20 Detailed view of microsegregation observed on tooth F-23. Nital etch. 14.8× The presence of shrinkage, slag segregation, and microsegregation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... intermetallic particles, and dimpled cellular regions in the matrix. The secondary fracture surface demonstrates similar features of intergranular fracture. aircraft landing gear intergranular fracture overaging cast aluminum-zinc alloy shrinkage porosity fractographic analysis optical emission...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include: Underbead cracks Gas porosity Inclusions—slag, oxides, or tungsten metal Incomplete fusion Inadequate penetration Solidification cracks, liquation cracks Failure to meet strength, ductility, or toughness requirements is another cause for rejection of weldments. Details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in weld metal Fig. 6 Effect of weld geometry on solidification cracking susceptibility. Reprinted from Ref 10 with permission from The Lincoln Electric Company Fig. 7 Causes and cures of cold cracking in weld metal. TSN, thermal severity number Fig. 8 Causes and cures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... In the majority of ingots, the shrinkage cavity or pipe is normally axial and, during the piercing operation, the lower end of it is displaced to the top of the ingot, to be removed when the ingot is cropped. However, if the ingot should be laid on its side or be knocked over before solidification is complete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and macroscale shrinkage cavities provide “holes” for crack nucleation. There is little difference in void growth from shrinkage porosity and a hole containing an unbonded inclusion. The incipient crack can form in four ways: Hole formation around an often weakly bonded particle Cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nucleation and propagation. In cast alloys, the presence of both microscale interdendritic porosity and macroscale shrinkage cavities provide “holes” for crack nucleation. There is little difference in void growth from shrinkage porosity and a hole containing an unbonded inclusion. The incipient crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... coil heated the drain tube and was only used to de-inventory the melter. Air was blown on the drain tube to facilitate the solidification of glass at the end of a pouring cycle. The glass plug, which formed in the lower half of the tube, functioned as a valve that would be opened (melted) when the next...