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solidification shrinkage

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-and-tempered microstructure contained solidification shrinkage, inherently poor ductility, and type II Mn-S inclusions that are known to reduce ductility. The macro and microscale fracture features confirmed that the casting was likely in low-temperature service at the time of failure. The composition...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Valve-spring failure due to residual shrinkage during solidification. (a) Macrograph showing fracture, as indicated by arrow. (b) Fracture surface; pipe is indicated by arrow. Source: Ref 4 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
with solidification shrinkage cavities. Not etched. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... higher silicon-to-aluminum ratio compared with the overload fracture area. The liquid in the interdendritic and grain boundary regions becomes silicon enriched during solidification, and hot tears form in these regions by the stresses generated by solidification shrinkage. The overload fracture also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and more associated with voids identified as solidification shrinkage cavities ( Fig. 6b ). This morphology is characteristic of material that has undergone local melting and re-solidification. These voids do not appear to he highly deformed, also indicating that the melting occurred at a late stage during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...,” or more correctly, shrinkage porosity, occurs when an unsolidified portion of the casting separates from the primary liquid during solidification. The volume of liquid in the closed region is not adequate to fill the closure when the liquid to solid transformation is completed. The unfilled volume...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for evaluation of microstructure. Figure 4 shows the typical microstructure observed in the aluminum pieces. The structure consists of dendrites of primary aluminum with inter-dendritic silicon particles and porosity. The porosity (shrinkage cavities) is most likely caused by solidification shrinkage. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forgings that have not been worked sufficiently to close it up. Both macroporosity and microporosity are caused by the combined action of metal shrinkage and gas evolution during solidification. It has been shown ( Ref 2 , 3 ) that nucleation of pores is difficult in the absence of some sort...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the metal bath that is released during solidification. This defect reduces the cross sectional area of the component. Shrinkage typically occurs in the last areas to solidify or areas in contact with gates. This defect reduces the cross sectional area of the component to a greater extent than porosity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of accumulator pressure, flow valve opening or oil level in the accumulator all contribute to the formation of metal waves. Bosley 5 has suggested that metal waves are produced by high local die temperatures which lead to preferential solidification and to differential shrinkage of the surface away from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... system that is used and may not have anything to do with how the system prevents defects from occurring. Gray Iron Solidification Tearing or hot cracking can occur during solidification, when the greatest amount of shrinkage occurs, and when the casting is least resistant to stresses imposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... was promoted by the formation of undercooled microstructure of low strength in the thin-walled part. Similar damage appeared in a cylinder head, in which case, the cracks were promoted by a supercooled structure. Castings Cylinder heads Engine blocks Shrinkage Stresses Gray iron Casting-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the material. It was recommended that the equipment manufacturer implement an appropriate heat treatment to meet the impact requirements of the application. Casting defects Cleavage Mining machinery Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels Shrinkage UNS J12084 UNS J13047 UNS J13855 ASTM A487 grade 7...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... particles, and dimpled cellular regions in the matrix. The secondary fracture surface demonstrates similar features of intergranular fracture. aircraft landing gear intergranular fracture overaging cast aluminum-zinc alloy shrinkage porosity fractographic analysis optical emission spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification. Figure 1 illustrates how rolled bar may contain porosity and pipe imperfections carried over from the cast ingot. These imperfections can serve...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a notch of unknown severity that acts as a stress raiser, which may adversely affect strength under load. Subsurface and core discontinuities may also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and composites) ( Ref 4 ). The first type, thermal or cooling stresses, results from rapid, inhomogeneous cooling through the T g range in amorphous polymers or through the solidification range in semicrystalline polymers. When cooling proceeds from the outer layer inward, large thermal gradients...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... In the majority of ingots, the shrinkage cavity or pipe is normally axial and, during the piercing operation, the lower end of it is displaced to the top of the ingot, to be removed when the ingot is cropped. However, if the ingot should be laid on its side or be knocked over before solidification is complete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... include: Underbead cracks Gas porosity Inclusions—slag, oxides, or tungsten metal Incomplete fusion Inadequate penetration Solidification cracks, liquation cracks Failure to meet strength, ductility, or toughness requirements is another cause for rejection of weldments. Details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for shrinkage. There is typically 3 to 8% volume contraction during solidification. Weld in the direction of least restraint. Peen the passes while hot to put the weldment in compression. Caution: Peening is not normally allowed in standard welded construction and is used under certain circumstances...