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solidification

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... solidification of the casting. The mass of a feeder-riser system located near the tear retarded cooling in this region, creating a hot spot. This supported the conclusion that the tear causing the fracture of the axle housing was formed during solidification by hindered contraction and was enlarged in service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ferrite. This anomalous structure is caused by shortcomings in the foundry practice of chemical composition, solidification, and inoculation control. Judging from the microstructure, the strength of the material was lower than desired for class 30 gray iron, and the suspected heat treatment further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... coarser network of rod-shaped and plate-shaped precipitates was found, that probably corresponded to the primary grain boundaries, or to the grain boundaries or twin planes of the austenite formed during solidification of the melt. These particles could have been aluminum nitride judging by their shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... or inadequate head. Corrosion pitting, crevice corrosion, and solidification cracks (casting defect) also contributed to the failure. Cavitation corrosion Hydrochloric acid Pump impellers Grade 702 UNS R60702 Crevice corrosion Casting-related failures Pitting corrosion Remnants of two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Fig. 7 Fracture surface in type 310 stainless steel flange, showing separation along columnar dendrite boundaries typical of fusion-zone solidification cracks. Fig. 9 Fracture edge of exit diffuser flange of type 405 stainless steel, showing cracking (small arrow) and shear-type plastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The quenched-and-tempered microstructure contained solidification shrinkage, inherently poor ductility, and type II Mn-S inclusions that are known to reduce ductility. The macro and microscale fracture features confirmed that the casting was likely in low-temperature service at the time of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0048804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... chevron marks typical of fatigue or raised points or tears pointing in the direction of the probable origin of failure. The characteristics of the thinwall cast iron structures like the variation in composition due to pouring from multiple ladles, variation in solidification rates, and variation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and then backfills during the remainder of the injection cycle. This is in partial agreement with Bosley 5 who considered that metal waves are connected with preferential die filling and solidification. However, both Schenider 6 and Smith 7 found no relation between the gating design and the occurrence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a notch of unknown severity that acts as a stress raiser, which may adversely affect strength under load. Subsurface and core discontinuities may also occur. Subsurface flaws often (but not always) originate from the as-cast ingot due to shrinkage, voids, and porosity that form during solidification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... gases—often hydrogen—decreases as the liquid cools, during solidification, and as the solid cools. The decrease in solubility produces conditions favorable for gas bubbles to precipitate. Gas porosity is generally quite spherical, as shown in Fig. 1 . “Shrink,” or more correctly, shrinkage porosity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of an as-received actuator casting. Arrow (b) indicates the hot tear cracks. Fig. 2 Crack (arrows) in the casting that developed during torque testing. 1.1×. Surface Examination Metallography Because hot tear fractures occur during the solidification phase of the casting process due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Fig. 3 Demarcation line at the crack, showing the differences in graphite type and distribution on either side of the crack. Etched with nital. 33x Fig. 4 Higher magnification view of Fig. 18 showing the two different solidification structures. Etched with nital. 230x Abstract...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of both sides of the grip revealed surface flow lines visibly present at the thumb position ( Fig. 2 ). Flow lines can be an indication of cold shuts, which result when two solidification fronts fail to fuse during the casting process. Fig. 1 Overall view of a riser removed from stock (top...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of those seen in wrought steel products. Not etched. (b) Close to the site of the failure. This view shows the globular MnS inclusions associated with solidification shrinkage cavities. Not etched. Fig. 7 Optical micrograph of the spool region of the failed kingpin, close to the site...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; oxidized fracture surface showing dendritic pattern Hot tearing C 222 (a) Rupture after complete solidification, either during cooling or heat treatment Quench cracking C 300: Discontinuities caused by lack of fusion (cold shuts); edges generally rounded, indicating poor contact between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... , and 6 ) indicates very rapid re-solidification after melting. Figure 4 shows the cladding alloy on 2024-T3, which is the nearly pure aluminum alloy 1230. The slight intrusion of the 1230 cladding alloy layer into the cast layer indicates the higher melting point of the 1230 alloy (645 to 660°C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... deposit than there were in the 1977 deposit. Fig. 4 A spherical nonmetallic inclusion in apparently a mild steel particle in the 1979 deposit. Spherical inclusions like this are found in a particle after solidification from liquid. Fig. 5 A metal particle in the 1977 deposit. The steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... grain structure adjacent to the external surface. Figure 6 shows fracture through the butt weld which also exhibited a marked columnar crystal structure indicative of the mode of solidification of the weld metal. The layer of scale present on the bore surface is also seen. Fig. 4 Fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of solidification porosity. Unetched. (a) 31.5×. (b) 252× Fig. 5 EDS elemental analysis results for the compressor outlet deposit Fig. 6 EDS elemental analysis results for the condenser inlet deposit Fig. 7 Wavelength dispersive spectrographic analysis (WDS) over the l.820 to l.850 nm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Handbook , a hot crack is defined as “a crack or fracture caused by internal stresses that develop after solidification and during cooling from an elevated temperature (above 650°C, or 1200°F, for gray iron). A hot crack is less visible (less open) than a hot tear and usually exhibits less evidence...