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solid-state welding processes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... stainless steels may show a considerable susceptibility to intercrystalline corrosion in such conditions as, for example, during welding. In fact, if these steels are heated within a temperature range from 425 °C to 870 °C (known as sensitization range) and slowly cooled, the carbon, in γ phase solid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The components comprised circular cylinders fabricated by plating a thin layer of silver on each of the contact surfaces (uranium and stainless steel) and pressing the parts together at elevated temperature to solid-state bond the two silver surfaces. The manufacturing process produced a high level of residual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-consuming and potentially expensive process of redesign may indeed be necessary for prevention of further failures in some cases. However, from the standpoint of practical failure analysis, a wide variety of manufacturing and material characteristics can act singly or combine synergistically to reduce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the evaluation of unstable, rapid fracture. Ductile and brittle overload failures and the resultant fracture morphology are influenced by various material factors from the atomic level to the bulk material level. Although it has been stated in many ways, one of the guiding principles of materials science...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the internal components of a sugar beet diffuser at a midwestern United States processing plant. The slope type diffuser extracts raw beet juice from sliced beets, as highlighted in the simplified diagram of the vessel shown in Fig. 1 . Sliced beets are dropped from a conveyor belt into the bottom...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., creep, and fatigue. The x-ray diffraction results show that carbides of normal region were TaC and Cr 23 C 6 . In the welded area, there are only coarse chromium-rich carbides that were generated during weld regeneration. In the welding process, the filler metal is Haynes 188, a solid-solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... found near the welding area of J-2 joints. In other sample, undercut defect was found and at this location, carburization as an initiation condition for metal dusting was found. The welding protrusion will change laminar flow of the gas, to turbulent flow. The solid particles in the turbulent gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... has persuaded industries to extend their cladding methods into solid state procedures. Explosive cladding/welding is a potential solid state method to fabricate Inconel 625-substrate bimetal plates. The whole procedure of explosive cladding can be summarized in the following steps. As Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of 5083-O aluminum alloy and operated at −72 °C (−98 °F), which is below the melting point of mercury (−39 °C, or −38 °F). Mercury is not known to embrittle aluminum while it is in the solid state. Therefore, the history of the plant was examined to determine when the area of failure exceeded the melting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... with the diffuser tube. Failures with these stages, at the TIG weld, occurred in 1986 and 1987 after only three months of service. An investigation was initiated to determine how the life of the diffuser stages could be extended. Finite element analyses were employed to examine the stress states that were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... on the affected side was completed and during welding of the opposing weld. It is likely that the stress necessary to cause fracture developed from a combination of high constraint (the large I-beam is effectively an infinite solid with regard to the fracture process), rapid cooling (a function of poor preheat...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by surface contact with another metal in either liquid or solid form. This phenomenon from the presence of another metal in the molten state has been known for some time as liquid metal embrittlement. More recently, the term liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) has been accepted as more descriptive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and prevention of several types of failure in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “Stress-Corrosion Cracking,” “Liquid-Metal and Solid-Metal Induced Embrittlement,” “Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement,” “Corrosive Wear Failures,” “Biological Corrosion Failures,” and “High...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in this Volume discuss analysis and prevention of several types of failures in which corrosion is a contributing factor. These articles include “ Stress-Corrosion Cracking ,” “ Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement ,” “ Hydrogen Damage and Embrittlement ,” “ Corrosive Wear Failures ,” “ Biological...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was recommended as an alternative to the bronze-backed journal (AAR M-501-48). In 1950, six railroads applied 600 test bearings successfully. In the 1956 AAR proceedings ( Ref 11 ), the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad stated that at least three factors must exist to cause copper-penetration fractures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be obtained for measurement. Separate specimen populations should be selected to represent the manufacturing stage(s) of interest so as to evaluate the effect of a given process on the stress state of the component. This can help identify the manufacturing process or production line that may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be increased sufficiently until the desired repeatability is achieved. This technique works well for all detector types, particularly multichannel solid-state detectors that do not resolve individual counts. When using position-sensitive proportional counters, the number of counts can be used as a measure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in both the undeformed and final deformed states. The analysis indicates that the torque required to develop the observed deformation was approximately 4,750 ft-lbf, a value well below the 6,000 ft-lbf limit. Fig. 8 Undeformed and final deformed shapes with corresponding stress contours...