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solid-state transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by yield strength. Fig. 5 Diagram of the temperature dependence of elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of polycrystalline materials that do not exhibit a solid-state transformation. bcc, body-centered cubic; fcc, face-centered cubic; T , instantaneous absolute temperature; T M , absolute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a solid-state transformation. bcc, body-centered cubic; fcc, face-centered cubic; T , instantaneous absolute temperature; T M , absolute melting temperature of the material Fig. 3 Aluminum alloy 6063-T6 extension-ladder side-rail extrusion that failed by plastic deformation and subsequent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with a reducing carbonaceous atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide, appear to be responsible for producing the white-etching layer. The high heat and pressure increase the interaction of carbon and allow solid-state diffusion of the carbon into the gun steel, thus allowing high carbon carbide to form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are used ( Ref 23 ). The type of heat source and its configuration affects the size and temperature of the melt pool, the degree of mixing within the pool, and the subsequent rates of solidification and subsequent solid-state transformations. Figure 1 plots some of the metal fusion-based AM processes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... limited quantitative, information regarding the composition and state of the material evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy uses infrared energy to produce vibrations within the molecular bonds that constitute the material evaluated. Vibrational states of varying energy levels exist...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... coefficient of thermal expansion. Most heat-treating problems could be solved if this coefficient could be controlled [ 1 ]. Almost all solids expand on heating and contract upon cooling. The relationship between thermal conductivity and thermal expansion is important in designing to prevent thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of stress transformations are discussed first, and then the determination of stress maxima is discussed. To define stress transformation, it is easier to start with a two-dimensional case. One common way to define a two-dimensional (2-D) stress state is with a plane stress assumption. Plane stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... normal stress reaches the yield strength of the material. Tresca’s theory states that yield at a point begins when the maximum shear stress equals the shear stress in a tension specimen when it begins to yield. Another common failure model is the von Mises criterion, which is based on a determination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (a) thread contact and (b) distortion and stress state Fig. 6 Example of an elastic/plastic finite element analysis. (a) Photograph showing distorted transformer housing from internal overpressurization. (b) Finite element results showing permanently distorted shape and stress contours Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... possible to quickly create 3D solid models with automatic mesh generation rather than having to input each individual node location. It is common for desktop computer and workstations to be able to handle complex 3D FEA linear and steady-state models and simpler nonlinear and transient analyses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... marks in the surface of machined workpieces. Manufacturing engineers should choose machine tools built with a sturdy, heavy frame and a solid bed to reduce workpiece rejections and failures. Neglected maintenance of spindles, lead screws, transmission gears, worm drives, hydraulic slides, and other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the evaluation of unstable, rapid fracture. Ductile and brittle overload failures and the resultant fracture morphology are influenced by various material factors from the atomic level to the bulk material level. Although it has been stated in many ways, one of the guiding principles of materials science...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is considered minimal to nonexistent. Fig. 9 Fourier transform infrared spectra of unknown white solids in a tank under investigation (bottom spectrum) was matched to ferric phosphate in the software spectral library (top spectrum). The table, populated by the software, indicates the hit quality index...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanistic models are concerned only with the steady state. Fig. 1 Relative effect of impact angle on solid particle erosion of various types of materials. The scale for erosion rate is not the same for the different materials. Adapted from Ref 47 – 49 Fig. 2 Characteristic volume-loss...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-Resolution Spectra Depth Profiles Angle-Dependent Analysis Maps and Line Scans Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that uses a high-energy, primary ion beam to probe the surface of a solid material. The instrument is typically operated in the “static” mode...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a distribution defined by the CDF, F xi . Transform all variables to standard normal variates, u i , using the transformation F Xi ( x ) = Φ( u i ). Thus, x i = F X i − 1 [ Φ ( u i ) ] Substituting each x i into the limit state function g , g now becomes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... 8(b) is parallel to the nominal stress, it would have to be activated by the local state of stress within a grain. However, the stress is normal to the cleavage crack nucleus for the other orientations. Figures 8 ( a – c ) assume that both twins are nucleated at the same time. Figure 8(d) shows...