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solid-state reactions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
..., with increased temperature stimulating formation of more intermetallic compound, initially by solid-state reaction but eventually in liquid phase reaction. Electron probe microanalysis provided in this case the necessary link between understanding events on a micrometer scale with those on a macroscopic scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... During the curing process, chemical reactions take place that are structured to cause the reactants to polymerize and link together. This results in cross links formed by chemical bonds, resulting in a network structure. In the final fully cured state, the cross-linked network provides desirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the mechanism and rate of the subsequent degradation reactions are typically not influenced. Temperature Influences Even though the formation of excited molecular states is initiated by the absorption of photons, the subsequent deactivation and degradation reactions are influenced by the temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that are predominantly in the solid state and the methods employed for solids testing. Examples of unidirectional and dynamic oscillatory testing are provided for different mechanical behaviors. deformation flow behavior polymers rheological testing Rheology Fundamentals Rheology is defined as the study...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wear test WEAR is defined as surface damage with gradual removal of material from solid surfaces by abrasives or a counterface in relative motion. Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment, involving metal dissolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... E662, “Standard Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,” is the most widely accepted smoke evolution test in the United States. Also known as the NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST) smoke test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... where the concentrating boiler solids could initiate. The permeability and solubility of hydrogen in steel increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing pH ( Ref 47 ). The hydrogen content in steel increases linearly with the square root of immersion time in acid until a steady-state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., to prevent a premature reaction. The formulation contains monomers, oligomers, curing agents (hardeners), catalysts, additives such as adhesion promoters, and in many cases fillers to enhance the physical properties or to reduce cost. In the fully cured state, the crosslinked network provides good mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cables with MgO as insulator and Inconel 600 as the outer sheath material. An electric current is generated between the core wire and outer sheath by various (n,β), (n,γ,e) and (β,e) reactions. The signal from the emitter cable (produced by one or more of these reactions) is then carried to an amplifier...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... maintenance. corrosion corrosion failure analysis corrosion monitoring electrochemical corrosion galvanic protection inhibitors metallic coatings nonmetallic coatings preventive maintenance surface treatments thermal spray CORROSION is the deterioration of a material by a reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by proper control of the water chemistry and by removal of waterside deposits where concentrating boiler solids could occur. In high pH conditions, concentrated sodium hydroxide dissolves the magnetite according to the following reaction ( Ref 43 ). 4 NaOH + Fe 3 O 4 → 2 NaFeO 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fracture Introduction Mechanical Damage occurred to the internal components of a sugar beet diffuser at a midwestern United States processing plant. The slope type diffuser extracts raw beet juice from sliced beets, as highlighted in the simplified diagram of the vessel shown in Fig. 1 . Sliced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is available. Polytetrafluoroethylene is sometimes added to acetals to reduce friction. Graphite and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) are also added; although they decrease friction, these solid lubricants usually do not prevent wear. Another low-cost bushing material is porous bronze...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... design software. It is now possible to quickly create 3-D solid models with automatic mesh generation rather than having to input each individual node location. It is common for desktop computer and workstations to be able to handle complex 3-D FEA linear and steady-state models and simpler nonlinear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (glassy state) and above which the polymeric material transitions to a viscous or rubbery state. The T g is also a measure of the onset of long-range molecular motion in the polymeric material. Because the transition from glass to rubber is not a thermodynamic transition but rather a manifestation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of severely over-heater boiler and superheater tubes results from the so-called “steam-iron reaction,” 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O = Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 which becomes significant at metal temperatures of the order of 600°C. The scale found externally is due to high temperature oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., attenuated total reflectance, and combined technologies such as gas chromatography FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/FTIR; solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy; mass spectroscopy; and Raman spectroscopy. Only the characterization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., linearity, and steady-state conditions. As computing power increased, so did the complexity of finite-element modeling and analysis techniques. The first analyses and elements available were limited to 2D beams and spars. The progression was then toward three-dimensional (3D) spars and beams, 2D solid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to a brazed aluminum plate-fin exchanger within the cold box was constructed of 5083-O aluminum alloy and operated at −72 °C (−98 °F), which is below the melting point of mercury (−39 °C, or −38 °F). Mercury is not known to embrittle aluminum while it is in the solid state. Therefore, the history of the plant...