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solid solutions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the primary solid solution precipitated in the residual melt. A third crankcase had fractures in two places, first at the frontal end wall and second at the thinnest point between two bore holes. In all three cases casting stresses caused by unfavorable construction and rapid cooling were responsible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... observed inclusions were spinel solid solutions of the type MO middot; N2O3, where M = Fe, Mn, or Mg and N = Cr or Al. The detrimental inclusions were corundum, calcium aluminates, cristobalite, and silicates. The most detrimental phases were traced on the surfaces of the specimens fractured using impact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in a basic mass of pearlite with little ferrite. But the thin-walled part showed a structure of dendrites of precipitated primary solid solution grains with pearlitic-ferritic structure and a residual liquid phase with granular graphite in the ferritic matrix. The structure was formed by undercooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of another wire. Etched in alc. picric acid. 500 × The zinc layer has apparently reacted with the base material to form a solid solution or a compound. This takes on a dark colour when etched with alcoholic picric acid ( Fig. 8 ) and is significantly harder than the core structure. The microhardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... phase. The sigma phase consists of an intermetallic compound of approximately 50 at. % Cr which forms from the solid solution during slow cooling or during extended annealing below 800°to 900°C (depending upon the other components of the alloy). The formation of sigma phase is accompanied by a decrease...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
of undesirable structure (C and D) surrounded by areas of normal structure (E and F). See (c). 0.5% hydrofluoric acid. 11×. (c) Inner end of cold shut void (A) in (b), showing start of flow line between region of normal structure (B), with eutectic silicon (C) of normal shape in matrix of aluminum solid solution More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
(C) of normal shape in matrix of aluminum solid solution (D), and region of undesirable structure (E). 0.5% hydrofluoric acid. Original magnification: 504× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by crevice corrosion. The tubing in the cooler was replaced, and cooling-water supply was changed from river to city water, which contained no dirt to deposit on the tube surfaces. An alternate solution of installing replacement tubes in the vertical position to make deposition of solids from river water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... mechanical properties from the heat treatment given during the final stages of manufacture. This involves an initial quench (solution treatment) to produce a super-saturated solid solution followed, either by standing at room temperature (natural ageing) or by heating to a slightly elevated temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and suggests that this material was made by the Bessemer process and had been somewhat overblown, resulting in an abnormal pick-up of this element. At the time when the rivets were originally inserted the nitride would be held in solid solution in the ferrite and its presence would not seriously affect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract An LNG tanker experienced a fracture of the solid tail shaft, which is a section of the main drive shaft. The tail shaft was made of a forged low-carbon steel. In spite of two ultrasonic inspections, a large defect the size of a football in the center of the shaft was missed. During...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... or equilibrium carbides or other phases from γ solid solution). In particular, the austenitic stainless steels may show a considerable susceptibility to intercrystalline corrosion in such conditions as, for example, during welding. In fact, if these steels are heated within a temperature range from 425...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... However, it is not easy to always obtain an appropriate balance of both at reasonable cost, because increases in mechanical strength and wear resistance are generally achieved by second phases, solid-solution hardening, and work hardening ( Ref 41 , 63 ), which have negative effects on the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the thickness of the boundary layer in the liquid phase; C sat is the concentration of the dissolving solid, in the liquid, at the interface; C ∞ is the concentration of the dissolving phase in the bulk of the liquid; and D is the effective diffusion coefficient in the solution for the exchange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... diffraction results show that carbides of normal region were TaC and Cr 23 C 6 . In the welded area, there are only coarse chromium-rich carbides that were generated during weld regeneration. In the welding process, the filler metal is Haynes 188, a solid-solution-strengthened superalloy having low-carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., ICP-OES uses the optical emission principles of exited atoms to determine the elemental concentration in samples. However, for ICP-OES, solid samples are dissolved (digested) in an appropriate solvent (typically acid) to produce a solution for analysis. The resulting sample solution (or an original...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 Fourier transform infrared spectra of unknown white solids in a tank under investigation (bottom spectrum) was matched to ferric phosphate in the software spectral library (top spectrum). The table, populated by the software, indicates the hit quality index (HQI), the library used More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the dealloyed (dealuminized) regions were significantly less than those in the casting material (by an approximate factor of 2 to 2.5). Discussion Volume 10 of the 8th Edition of the Metals Handbook defines dealloying as: “The selective corrosion of one or more components of a solid solution alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of melting or partial melting of widely separated rivets and adjacent Alclad 2024-T3 fuselage skin. The damage was confined to 0.25 in (6.4 mm) radii around the affected rivets. On the figures, the solid lines indicate empirical localized rosettes. Dotted lines on the arrows indicate the beginning stages...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... substantial leaf separation along the elongated grains parallel to the fracture plane as shown in figure 2 . Macroetching of the fracture origin area also confirmed the direction of propagation was along the short transverse plane. The microstructure consisted of a uniform distribution of solid solution...