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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... frequently observed inclusions were spinel solid solutions of the type MO middot; N2O3, where M = Fe, Mn, or Mg and N = Cr or Al. The detrimental inclusions were corundum, calcium aluminates, cristobalite, and silicates. The most detrimental phases were traced on the surfaces of the specimens fractured using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... flake size in a basic mass of pearlite with little ferrite. But the thin-walled part showed a structure of dendrites of precipitated primary solid solution grains with pearlitic-ferritic structure and a residual liquid phase with granular graphite in the ferritic matrix. The structure was formed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the constituents: the smaller the grains, the faster they dissolve. In refractories, however, the smallest grains, by design, bond with the coarser grains (the aggregate), and since this bonding occurs by liquid-solid sintering, the matrix materials (the bonding phases) have the lowest melting temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... phase. The sigma phase consists of an intermetallic compound of approximately 50 at. % Cr which forms from the solid solution during slow cooling or during extended annealing below 800°to 900°C (depending upon the other components of the alloy). The formation of sigma phase is accompanied by a decrease...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Erosion of solid surfaces can be brought about solely by liquids in two ways: from damage induced by formation and subsequent collapse of voids or cavities within the liquid, and from high-velocity impacts between a solid surface and liquid droplets. The former process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... , “Workshop Proceedings: Low-Pressure Steam Turbine Blade Failures,” EPRI Report WS-78-114, July 1980 . 6. Benedict R. P. , Wonn J. W. , and Hurwitz M. J. , “Detection of Water Induction in Steam Turbines, Phase II: Field Evaluation,” EPRI Report CS-3135, June 1983 . 7...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... elastic energy, as in crack propagation, or from stored chemical-free energy, as in phase transformation. Experimental Stress Analysis Experimental stress analysis can be done by several methods, all of which may be valuable in determining machine loads and component stresses that can cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the selected composition and consists of α phase (solid solution of antimony and copper in tin), β phase (SbSn cubic crystals), and η phase (Cu 6 Sn 5 compound). The babbit structure revealed at a great magnification (5000×) shows that the main α phase is a fine-dispersed phase ( Fig. 1b ) with components...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , The Influence of Hydrodynamics on Erosion-Corrosion in Two-Phase Liquid-Particle Flow , Corrosion , Vol 45 ( No. 10 ), 1989 , p 793 – 804 24. Nesic S. and Postlethwaite J. , Relationship Between the Structure of Disturbed Flow and Erosion-Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 46 ( No. 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and reducer problems originate during storage or periods of inactivity. The most common of these involve fretting corrosion, where extremely small movements over long times or during shipping allow the rolling elements of the bearings or the gear teeth to displace the lubricant film, and solid-phase (low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dissolves in the molten glass and reprecipitates as one or more compositionally modified crystalline phases. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...Abstract Abstract Metallography is an important component of failure analysis. In the case of a liquid metal embrittlement (LME) failure it is usually conclusive if a third phase constituent can be formed inside of the cracks after failure. In the case where it is necessary to characterize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Sedlaček M. , Rek Z. , and Žun I. , Effectiveness and Design of Surface Texturing for Different Lubrication Regimes , Meccanica , Vol 47 , 2012 , p 1613 – 1622 10.1007/s11012-012-9540-7 176. Bowden F.P. and Tabor D. , The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concentration decreases with depth, due to diffusion limitations. Precipitates formed along the diffusion front. Fig. 7 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on nickel alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln. See also Fig. 8 . Region 1 is an area of chromium sulfide islands (dark phase) interspersed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Erosion of a solid surface can be brought about by liquid droplet impingement (LDI), which is defined as "progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to erosion by liquid droplets." In this article, the emphasis is placed on the damage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of melting or partial melting of widely separated rivets and adjacent Alclad 2024-T3 fuselage skin. The damage was confined to 0.25 in (6.4 mm) radii around the affected rivets. On the figures, the solid lines indicate empirical localized rosettes. Dotted lines on the arrows indicate the beginning stages...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... be concluded that the causes for the steel susceptibility to intercrystalline corrosion may be quite different, but all of them involve precipitation at the grain boundaries of a surplus phase (non-equilibrium or equilibrium carbides or other phases from γ solid solution). In particular, the austenitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... reach a critical size, they separate from the solidification front and float to the surface of the solidifying pool ( Ref 33 ). Other types of defects, such as solidification cracking and solid-state cracking, are thermal-metallurgical phenomena related to alloy-specific phase transformations...